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Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen and Refractory Material on TiN Formation and Equiaxed Grain Structure of Ferritic Stainless Steel

Title
Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen and Refractory Material on TiN Formation and Equiaxed Grain Structure of Ferritic Stainless Steel
Author
박주현
Keywords
SOLIDIFICATION STRUCTURE; INCLUSION PARTICLES; CARBON-STEEL; LIQUID-IRON; ALLOY; BEHAVIOR; GROWTH; MICROSTRUCTURE; THERMODYNAMICS; PRECIPITATION
Issue Date
2018-06
Publisher
SPRINGER
Citation
METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B-PROCESS METALLURGY AND MATERIALS PROCESSING SCIENCE, v. 49, No. 3, Page. 877-893
Abstract
The effect of nitrogen content on the formation of an equiaxed solidification structure of Fe-16Cr steel was investigated. Moreover, two different kinds of refractory materials, i.e., alumina and magnesia, were employed to control the type of oxide inclusion. The characteristics of TiN(-oxide) inclusions were quantitatively analyzed in both molten steel and solidified samples. When the melting was carried out in the alumina refractory, the grain size continuously decreased with increasing nitrogen content. However, a minimum grain size was observed at a specific nitrogen content (approx. 150 ppm) when the steel was melted in the magnesia refractory. Most of the single TiN particles had a cuboidal shape and fine irregularly shaped particles were located along the grain boundary due to the microsegregation of Ti at the grain boundary during solidification. The type of TiN-oxide hybrid inclusion was strongly affected by the refractory material where Al2O3-TiN and MgAl2O4-TiN hybrid-type inclusions were obtained in the alumina and magnesia refractory experiments, respectively. The formation of oxide inclusions was well predicted by thermochemical computations and it was commonly found that oxide particles were initially formed, followed by the nucleation and growth of TiN. When the nitrogen content increased, the number density of TiN linearly increased in the alumina refractory experiments. However, the number of TiN exhibits a maximum at about [N] = 150 ppm, at which a minimum grain size was obtained in the magnesia refractory experiments. Therefore, the larger the number density of TiN, the smaller the primary grain size after solidification. The number density of TiN in the steel melted in the magnesia refractory was greater than that in the steel melted in the alumina refractory at given Ti and N contents, which was due to the lower planar lattice disregistry of MgAl2O4-TiN interface rather than that of Al2O3-TiN interface. When Delta T-TiN (= difference between the TiN precipitation temperature and the liquidus of the steel) was 20 K to 40 K, the number density of effective TiN was maximized and thus, the grain size was minimized after solidification. Finally, although most of the TiN particles were smaller than 1 mu m in the molten steel samples irrespective of the nitrogen content, TiN particles larger than 10 mu m were observed in the solidified samples when the nitrogen content was greater than 150 ppm. The growth of TiN particles during melting and solidification was well predicted by the combinatorial simulation of the 'Ostwald ripening model' based on the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner theory in conjunction with the 'Diffusion controlled model' using Ohnaka's microsegregation equation.
URI
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11663-018-1218-7https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/81166
ISSN
1073-5615
DOI
10.1007/s11663-018-1218-7
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES[E](공학대학) > MATERIALS SCIENCE AND CHEMICAL ENGINEERING(재료화학공학과) > Articles
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