Multifunctional Nanoparticles as Somatostatin Receptor-targeting Delivery System of Polyaniline and Methotrexate for Combined Chemo-Photothermal Therapy
- Multifunctional Nanoparticles as Somatostatin Receptor-targeting Delivery System of Polyaniline and Methotrexate for Combined Chemo-Photothermal Therapy
- Lanreotide; Polyaniline; Methotrexate; Nanoparticle; Somatostatin receptor
- Issue Date
- ELSEVIER SCI LTD
- ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, v. 68, Page. 154-167
- Lanreotide (LT), a synthetic analog of somatostatin, has been demonstrated to specifically bind to somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), which are widely overexpressed in several types of cancer cells. In this study, we incorporated a chemotherapeutic agent, methotrexate (MTX), and a photosensitizer material, polyaniline (PANI), into hybrid polymer nanoparticles (NPs), which could target cancer cells after conjugation with LT (LT-MTX/PANI NPs). The successful preparation of LT-MTX/PANI NPs was confirmed by a small particle size (187.9 +/- 3.2 nm), a polydispersity index of 0.232 +/- 0.011, and a negative zeta potential of -14.6 +/- 1.0 my. Notably, LT-MTX/PANI NPs showed a greater uptake into SSTR-positive cancer cells and thereby better inhibited cell viability and induced higher levels of apoptosis than MTX, PANI NP, and MTX/PANI NP treatments did. In addition, the heat associated with the burst drug release induced by near-infrared (NIR) irradiation resulted in remarkably enhanced cell apoptosis, which was confirmed by an increase in the expression levels of apoptotic marker proteins. In agreement with the in vitro results, the administration of the SSTR-targeting NPs, followed by NIR exposure, to xenograft tumor-bearing mice resulted in an improved suppression of tumor development compared to that shown by MTX, PANI NPs, and MTX/PANI NPs, as well as by LT-MTX/PANI NPs without photothermal therapy. Thus, the SSTR-targeting NPs could be a promising delivery system for the effective treatment of SSTR-positive cancers.
Statement of significance
Somatostatin receptors are widely overexpressed in several types of cancer cells. In this study, we designed nanoparticles for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumor sites by conjugating hybrid polymers with a synthetic analog of somatostatin, specifically binding to somatostatin receptors. In addition, a photosensitizer material, polyaniline, was incorporated into the nanoparticles for combined chemo-photothermal therapy. The results demonstrated clear advantages of the newly designed targeted nanoparticles over their non-targeted counterparts or a free chemotherapeutic drug in inhibiting the viability of cancer cells in vitro and targeting/suppressing the tumor growth in an animal xenograft model. The study suggests that the designed nanoparticles are a promising delivery system for the effective treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive cancers. (C) 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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