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From the special issue editors: Global Business-to-Business Marketing

Title
From the special issue editors: Global Business-to-Business Marketing
Author
한상린
Keywords
B2B Marketing; product innovation; corporate social responsibility; business-to-business sponsorship opportunities; B2B marketing mix; B2B市场营销; 产品创新; 企业社会责任; B2B赞助机会; B2B营销组合
Issue Date
2016-01
Publisher
한국마케팅과학회/연세대학교의류환경학과
Citation
Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science(마케팅과학연구), v. 26, NO 1, Page. 1-3
Abstract
Welcome to the JGSMS Special Issue on Global Business-to-Business Marketing! Our global marketplace presents unique challenges to firms that sell goods and services in the business-to-business (B2B) market. B2B marketing is perhaps less appreciated because many B2B marketing activities are behind the scenes for most people. We go into an auto dealership and purchase a car – one business-to-consumer (B2C) transaction. Consider how many B2B transactions occurred in the process of manufacturing that car and bringing it to the consumer (for example, dozens or hundreds of suppliers provide parts and components, capital equipment, soft ware, consulting services and so forth). Consider also how the firm will seek economies in car manufacture, for example, by developing a single platform upon which many lines of cars may be manufactured over several years. Other opportunities for economies may exist in operations, or procurement, or research and development (R&D). Ultimately, all of these components of the B2B marketing activity network combine to offer increased value to the ultimate consumer. Here is the point: all of these components become ten times, or a hundred times, more complex once the firm is on a global scale. And, like competitors in so many other industries, car manufacturers have gone global in a big way. In many ways, B2B marketing resembles B2C marketing. Analysis of the customer base, the competition and the market and technology environment leads to the development of a marketing strategy (segmentation, targeting and positioning) and marketing programs (product, price, promotion and distribution). Brand value is also becoming critical, even in the B2B market setting (Han & Sung, 2008 ). But there are special challenges facing B2B marketers, especially those operating on a global scale. Product demand may be very volatile and uncertain, and demand may depend heavily on the target country’s stage of development. Steel exporters, for example, might target countries in early stages of development (some parts of the Middle East, for example, or sub-Saharan Africa) due to their great need for basic infrastructure. Also, unlike B2C producers, B2B marketers experience the effects of derived demand. As was illustrated by the “ Intel Inside ” campaign, derived demand is one of the most representative characteristics of B2B marketing. A components manufacturer for the car or aircraft industry experiences sales shortfalls and possibly inventory overstock if demand for cars or aircraft slows. Some carmakers may have better strategies for smoothing out peaks and valleys in fi nal demand, which in turn lessens unpredictability due to derived demand. Toyota or Ford, for example, produce and sell cars in many parts of the world, so a slowdown in the European market may be balanced by stable sales in North America. On the other hand, there are oft en fewer differences due to cultural reasons, so adaptation of the product or other marketing programs may not be necessary. Businesses in Southeast Asia, Western Europe or North or South America all need laptops, soft ware, projectors, copiers, phones, and so forth, and requirements and preferences are not so different. All B2B marketers care about quality, of course, but when operating on a global scale, one must consider global quality standards. Manufacturers wishing to export parts and components for sale strive to meet ISO 9000 certification standards. This is a set of industrial standards developed to assess and assure quality control, including quality of delivery and levels of customer satisfaction. Many B2B buyers, in fact, will not even purchase components from a company that does not have ISO 9000 certifi cation. At the same time, getting and maintaining the certifi cation can be a big competitive advantage for a B2B marketer. Let us not forget the importance of B2B services. Many service providers, such as banks, advertising agencies, market research firms, accounting services and others, have gone global, often in order to better serve their B2B customers who themselves have gone global. According to the US Department of Commerce, almost 30 % of U S exports are services, and a large share of this amount is accounted for by B2B services (such as commercial, professional and technical services, including construction, engineering and the like) (US Department of Commerce, 2002 ). Finally, there is often a close relationship between the manufacturing firm and its partners, such as suppliers. These relationships can last for years or even decades, and a strong bond of trust can develop between supplier and manufacturer. In fact, supplier investment and involvement in a startup company’s first product to market may be a deciding factor in its ultimate success (Song , Song, & Di Benedetto , 2011 ). The supplier is also a desirable open innovation partner for a manufacturer seeking to obtain technology or manufacturing knowhow. Kraft Foods, for example, in developing its Tassimo coffee-making system, worked in conjunction with Bosch- Siemens in a very successful open innovation framework, since the latter had the development and manufacturing skills to produce the coffee makers that Kraft needed (Cooper, 2012 ). The first four articles of this issue of JGSMS make up the Special Issue on Global Business to Business Marketing. Each of these examines a diff erent aspect of global B2B marketing. The topics range from global alliances for product innovation, to corporate social responsibility by the supplier firm, to high-visibility sponsorship opportunities by service providers. Whatever your area of interest within global B2B marketing, there is something for you in this issue. The goal here, as with all special issues, is to collect some of the best new work in the area and thereby become a starting point or “go-to” issue for academics doing research in this area for years to come. We hope you enjoy these articles and that they will give you a perspective on the issues and concerns surrounding business-to-business marketing on a global scale!
URI
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21639159.2015.1122962http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11754/30323
ISSN
2163-9159; 2163-9167
DOI
10.1080/21639159.2015.1122962
Appears in Collections:
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS[S](경영전문대학원) > BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION(경영학과) > Articles
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