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Molecular Cooperative Assembly-Mediated Synthesis of Ultra-High-Performance Hard Carbon Anodes for Dual-Carbon Sodium Hybrid Capacitors

Title
Molecular Cooperative Assembly-Mediated Synthesis of Ultra-High-Performance Hard Carbon Anodes for Dual-Carbon Sodium Hybrid Capacitors
Author
임원빈
Keywords
sodium hybrid capacitor; flexible electrode; hard carbon; reactive template; molecular cooperative assembly
Issue Date
2019-10
Publisher
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Citation
ACS NANO, v. 13, no. 10, Page. 11935-11946
Abstract
Although sodium hybrid capacitors (NHCs) have emerged as one of the most promising next-generation energy storage systems, further advancement is delayed primarily by the absence of high-performance battery-type anodes. Herein, we report a nature-inspired synthesis route to prepare hard carbon anodes with high capacity, rate capability, and cycle stability for dual-carbon NHCs. Shape- and size-controllable crystal aggregates of inexpensive triazine molecules are utilized as reactive templates that perform triple duties of structure-directing agent, porogen, and nitrogen source. This enables the fine control of microstructure/morphology/composition and thereby electrochemical reactions toward Na-ion. The resulting hard carbon optimized in terms of lateral size, interlayer spacing, and surface affinity of graphene-like layers achieves a specific capacity of similar to 380 mAh/g after 100 cycles at a current density of 250 mA/g mainly via intercalation, the current record of hard carbons. Combined with a commercial microporous carbon fiber cathode, the full cell is able to deliver a volumetric energy density of 2.89 mWh/cm(3) and a volumetric power density of 160 mW/cm(3), outperforming NHCs based on inorganic Na-ion anode materials. More importantly, such performance could not only be retained for 10000 cycles (4.5 F/cm(3) at 10 mA/cm(3)) with 0.000 028 6% loss per cycle at ˃97% Coulombic efficiency but also successfully transferred to flexible pouch cells without significant performance loss after 300 bending cycles or during wrapping at a 10R condition. Simple preparation of hard carbon anodes using organic crystal reactive templates, therefore, demonstrates great potential for the manufacture of high-performance flexible NHCs using only carbon electrode materials.
URI
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.9b06027https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/154607
ISSN
1936-0851; 1936-086X
DOI
10.1021/acsnano.9b06027
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING[S](공과대학) > MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING(신소재공학부) > Articles
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