생애주기비용(Life Cycle Cost), 가치공학(Value Engineering) 분석을 통한 중소규모 건축물의 냉난방시스템에 관한 연구
- 생애주기비용(Life Cycle Cost), 가치공학(Value Engineering) 분석을 통한 중소규모 건축물의 냉난방시스템에 관한 연구
- Other Titles
- Heating and Cooling Systems of Small Middle Buildings through Life Cycle Cost and Value Engineering Evolution
- Alternative Author(s)
- Byun, Woon-Seob
- Issue Date
- 산업발달로 인해 도심지 건축물의 고층화와 함께 건식 커튼월 방식의 외벽 구조 그리고 미려한 외관을 위한 창면적 증대로 건축물의 냉난방 에너지 소비량은 증가하고 있다.. 이에 일정 규모 이상의 건축물의 경우 계획 단계부터 에너지절약적인 건축설계, 설비설계등 건축공사 전공정에 걸쳐 에너지절약적인 건축물이 되도록 의무하하고 있다.
중앙 집중식 열원기기와 공조설비를 통한 냉난방을 수행하는 대규모 건축물의 경우 부하발생 및 운영 패턴의 적절한 예상으로 최적 열원 용량의 열원 시스템을 선정하고 각종 설비 기자재의 고효율 기기 선정과 친환경 자재를 사용함으로 에너지 절약 및 유지관리가 용이한 건물이 되도록 한다.
최근 삶의 질 향상으로 인해 중소규모 건축물에서도 실내 공기 환경의 쾌적성 요구가 높아지고 있으나, 초기투자비 및 장비설치 공간의 확보가 어려워 최소한의 냉난방 설비만 적용되고 있는 실정이다.
이에 중소규모 건축물에 적용된 냉난방 시스템의 초기투자비 및 기기설치 공간을 최소화하면서 실내 거주환경 개선을 위해 새로운 방안을 모색하고 이를 실용화하기 위한 방향 제시가 요구된다.
본 연구에서는 국내 중소규모 건축물에 주로 적용되고 있는 냉난방시스템을 조사하여 상대적인 특성과 장단점을 비교하고 LCC분석 및 VE평가를 통해 향우 중소규모 건축물에 적용될 냉난방 시스템의 방향을 제시한다.
Due to the industrial development, the buildings in the downtown areas are high-rising with the wet type curtain walls and beautiful windows, and as a result, the heating and cooling energy consumptions are increasing. Thus, the buildings of a certain scale or larger are obliged to be designed to be energy-saving throughout the entire construction processes from architecture to facility designs.
In particular, in case of the large-scale buildings heated and cooled by centralized heat source and HVAC system, a heat source system of an optimal capacity needs to be selected in an appropriate anticipation of load and operation pattern, while various high-efficiency facilities and equipments as well as environmental-friendly materials be used for energy saving and easy maintenance.
Recently, as life quality improves, even small and medium buildings are required to have a comfortable indoor air environment, but due to the high initial investment and narrow space for facilities, only a minimum heating and cooling system is used for them.
Hence, it is deemed necessary to minimize the initial investment cost and the space for the heating and cooling system for small and medium buildings, while exploring new ways to improve the indoor living environment.
The purpose of this study was to survey the heating and cooling systems applied to small and medium buildings in Korea and compare them in terms of relative features and advantages/disadvantages and thereupon, conduct LCC analysis and VE assessment to suggest the directions for future heating and cooling system for small and medium buildings.
The procedures for this study were as follows
1. Analysis of the systems surveyed
1) As a result of regional analysis, it was found that since EHP tends to be less efficient when the outdoor air temperature falls during severe winter, the GHP system allowing for a stable heating operation was deemed appropriate in the mid-land region.
2) As a consequence of analysis by use, it was disclosed that more GHP system was preferred in office buildings, while the EHP system was favored in the living amenities. The EHP system was deemed preferred because of its lower initial investment cost, while the GHP system was adopted because of its lower annual operation cost despite its high initial investment cost.
3) Over the recent 5 years, the EHP system has been used increasingly, while the GHP system has decreased gradually. The ratio of the GHP system has fallen due to decreasing subsidies, increasing cost of LNG and replacement/maintenance cost, while the ratio of the EHP has risen due to its localization and the resultant lower price as well as stable electric cost.
2. LCC analysis of each alternative
1) The EHP+ventilation unit mode was found most economic because its initial investment cost is lower and its life cycle cost is most advantageous.
3. VE assessment of each alternative
1) The EHP+ventilation unit mode was found most favorable in terms of the total system performance. However, no alternative did not meet the requirements for lower noise level, convenient maintenance and dust removal, such requirements need to be taken into consideration in the future.
4. Directions for future heating and cooling systems
1) As a result of the survey, the future heating and cooling system is required to ensure a stable heating performance during severe winter, the heating and cooling system in the living amenities should be less expensive in terms of intial investment cost, and the system in the office buildings should be cheaper in terms of annual operation cost, and the cost of replacement and maintenance should be minimal. In addition, the future heating and cooling system needs to be easy-to-construct and -maintain.
2) As shown in the LCC analysis, the future heating and cooling system should be less expensive in terms of intial investment cost as well as simple, while requiring least replacement and maintenance cost. In addition, the outdoor air load needs to be minimized through return of the exhausted heat, and the maintenance cost needs to be lowered further.
3) As found from the VE assessment, the future heating and cooling system should be a duct connection type minimizing the indoor noises, while its filters be cleaned and replaced conveniently. Furthermore, the system should integrate heating and cooling, ventilation and humidification.
4) This study surveyed the heating and cooling systems applied to small and medium buildings for the last 5 years and thereby, analyzed the system applications and conducted the LCC analysis and VE assessment of each alternative. As a result, it was found that large-scale buildings allowed for a thorough analysis and assessment through master plan, planning, basic design and construction design to be energy saving and easy-to-maintain, but that small and medium buildings were designed and constructed only for heating and cooling. So, it is deemed urgent to improve such problems through sufficient reviews and thereby, develop a heating and cooling system optimal for small and medium buildings for a comfortable living environment.
1. Theoretical review of LCC and VE
1) Review of LCC technique for analysis of heating and cooling economy
2) Review of VE technique for a comprehensive assessment of heating and cooling systems
2. Survey of the heating and cooling systems being used and selection of candidate systems for analysis
1) Survey of the heating and cooling systems applied to small and medium buildings
2) Analysis of the heating and cooling systems applied by region, use and period
3) Selection of the heating and cooling systems applicable to small and medium buildings
3. Design of a standard buildings and system
1) Design of the system in consideration of maximum load and dynamic load
2) Design of the system applicable to small and medium buildings
4. LCC analysis for each alternative
1) Analysis of initial investment cost, annual operation cost, replacement/maintenance cost and life cycle cost
2) Analysis of sensitivity to discount rates and electric/gas costs
5. VE assessment of each alternative
1) Selection of assessment points and setting of the weights on each assessment point
2) Comprehensive assessment using the weighted matrix
The results of this study can be summarized as follows
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- GRADUATE SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING[S](공학대학원) > ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING(건축공학과) > Theses(Master)
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