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폼알데하이드 Personal Sampling 개선 방법에 관한 연구

Title
폼알데하이드 Personal Sampling 개선 방법에 관한 연구
Author
이은희
Alternative Author(s)
Lee, Eun Hee
Advisor(s)
김윤신
Issue Date
2011-02
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
분석한 결과, 가장 편차가 심한 날을 기준으로 하면, 최소 39.50㎍/㎥에서 최대 89.50㎍/㎥까지 측정되어 시간대별 농도편차가 2배 이상 되는 것으로 조사되었다. 업무용 사무실에 근무하는 10명의 근로자를 대상으로 formaldehyde에 대하여 8시간 동안 개인 노출 측정을 시행한 결과, 평균 70.65㎍/㎥로 나타났고, 최대 144.73㎍/㎥, 최소 28.90㎍/㎥로 나타났으며, 노출에 따른 발암위해도를 산출한 결과, CTE 상태에서는 남자가 5.38E-06, 여자가 3.87E-06으로 평가되어 EPA에서 권장하고 있는 허용기준치인 10-6을 모두 초과하는 것으로 평가되었다. RME 상태에서는 남자가 5.66E-05, 여자가 5.10E-05으로 평가되어 EPA에서 권장하고 있는 최대 허용기준치인 10-4을 초과하지는 않은 것으로 조사되었다. 본 연구는 사무실 실내공기오염물질 중 formaldehyde로 인한 근로자의 건강위해성평가를 수행함에 있어 보다 신뢰성 있는 결과 값을 얻기 위하여 근로자의 모든 노출 경우를 고려한 장시간 측정방법을 제시하였고, 이를 위하여 장시간 측정이 가능한 흡착제를 개발하여 활용함으로써, 사무실 실내공기질에 대한 건강영향의 기초자료를 제공하고자 수행된 연구로, 단시간 측정 오염물질인 VOCs도 건강영향평가 및 관련 기준, 정책수립에 있어 장시간 측정이 적합한 흡착제 개발 및 이를 이용한 노출평가 및 건강위해성평가의 연구 등이 필요할 것으로 사료된다. |ABSTRACT This research examined the existing measurement methods of health risk assessment and identified the limitations of those. The research especially focused on the exposure to formaldehyde which is known as a carcinogen among office air contaminants. In addition, an adsorbent is developed and the performance of it was assessed. The developed adsorbent enables the long time cumulative measurement of individual exposure so that more reliable health risk assessment can be done. Long time individual exposures to formaldehyde were assessed using the developed adsorbent. Then based on the obtained contamination concentrations, more reliable health risk assessment was done. The purpose of this research was to provide with basic information for the establishment of office air-quality management policy and the studies on the health risk assessment caused by air pollution. The results of the research are summarized and presented as following. First was the development of formaldehyde adsorbent for long time measurement. Silica used as the scaffold was refined by Soxhlet device and the treatment result was verified by electron microscope. It was possible to confirm that the impurities on the surface of silica had been removed. In order to assess the reproducibility for each coating lot of derivative reagent, blank tests were done on 10lots. As the result, RSD showed the best reproducibility value of 6.58. Cartridges for comparison were chosen to assess the performance of developed adsorbent. The error occurrence extent of each object cartridge was measured. All three adsorbent cartridges had good reproducibility with A: 0.13%, B: 0.33% and C: 0.12%. Blank tests by cartridge gave blank value results of A=134pg, B=250pg and C=260pg. The SD values were A=3.91, B=12.6 and C=1.58, which suggested that the SD values of developed adsorbent were most uniform with SD value of 1.58. The developed adsorbent is used in the analyses of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde. Compared to objective cartridge, the adsorbent was assessed to have equivalent or better performance. It is expected that the adsorbent can be used in all air quality analyses requiring long time measurement and high concentration measurement. Second was measurement and analysis of formaldehyde in order to examine the measurement method of formaldehyde in the office. Formaldehyde was measured 8 times, 30 minutes for each measurement and in one hour interval, during the working hour of office workers. Based on the day with the highest deviation, minimum was 39.50㎍/㎥ and maximum was 89.50㎍/㎥. It suggested that the formaldehyde concentration deviation can be more than twice in different hours. 8 hours individual exposure measurement to formaldehyde was done on 10 office workers. Average was 70.65㎍/㎥, maximum was 144.73㎍/㎥ and minimum was 28.90㎍/㎥. The carcinogenesis risk dependent on formaldehyde exposure was obtained. In CTE state, male was 5.38E-06 and female was 3.87E-06. Both exceeded the EPA recommendation of allowable limit, 10-6. In RME state, male was 5.66E-06 and female was 5.10E-06. Both were lower than the EPA recommendation of allowable limit, 10-4. This research suggested the long time measurement method considering all exposure cases of office workers, in order to obtain more reliable result in the health risk assessment of formaldehyde among office air contaminants. This research also developed and utilized an adsorbent which enables the long time measurement to fulfill the research objective of provision of basic information and data to the health risk assessment of office air quality.
ABSTRACT This research examined the existing measurement methods of health risk assessment and identified the limitations of those. The research especially focused on the exposure to formaldehyde which is known as a carcinogen among office air contaminants. In addition, an adsorbent is developed and the performance of it was assessed. The developed adsorbent enables the long time cumulative measurement of individual exposure so that more reliable health risk assessment can be done. Long time individual exposures to formaldehyde were assessed using the developed adsorbent. Then based on the obtained contamination concentrations, more reliable health risk assessment was done. The purpose of this research was to provide with basic information for the establishment of office air-quality management policy and the studies on the health risk assessment caused by air pollution. The results of the research are summarized and presented as following. First was the development of formaldehyde adsorbent for long time measurement. Silica used as the scaffold was refined by Soxhlet device and the treatment result was verified by electron microscope. It was possible to confirm that the impurities on the surface of silica had been removed. In order to assess the reproducibility for each coating lot of derivative reagent, blank tests were done on 10lots. As the result, RSD showed the best reproducibility value of 6.58. Cartridges for comparison were chosen to assess the performance of developed adsorbent. The error occurrence extent of each object cartridge was measured. All three adsorbent cartridges had good reproducibility with A: 0.13%, B: 0.33% and C: 0.12%. Blank tests by cartridge gave blank value results of A=134pg, B=250pg and C=260pg. The SD values were A=3.91, B=12.6 and C=1.58, which suggested that the SD values of developed adsorbent were most uniform with SD value of 1.58. The developed adsorbent is used in the analyses of carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde. Compared to objective cartridge, the adsorbent was assessed to have equivalent or better performance. It is expected that the adsorbent can be used in all air quality analyses requiring long time measurement and high concentration measurement. Second was measurement and analysis of formaldehyde in order to examine the measurement method of formaldehyde in the office. Formaldehyde was measured 8 times, 30 minutes for each measurement and in one hour interval, during the working hour of office workers. Based on the day with the highest deviation, minimum was 39.50㎍/㎥ and maximum was 89.50㎍/㎥. It suggested that the formaldehyde concentration deviation can be more than twice in different hours. 8 hours individual exposure measurement to formaldehyde was done on 10 office workers. Average was 70.65㎍/㎥, maximum was 144.73㎍/㎥ and minimum was 28.90㎍/㎥. The carcinogenesis risk dependent on formaldehyde exposure was obtained. In CTE state, male was 5.38E-06 and female was 3.87E-06. Both exceeded the EPA recommendation of allowable limit, 10-6. In RME state, male was 5.66E-06 and female was 5.10E-06. Both were lower than the EPA recommendation of allowable limit, 10-4. This research suggested the long time measurement method considering all exposure cases of office workers, in order to obtain more reliable result in the health risk assessment of formaldehyde among office air contaminants. This research also developed and utilized an adsorbent which enables the long time measurement to fulfill the research objective of provision of basic information and data to the health risk assessment of office air quality.
국문요약 노동부는 2003년에 사무실 근로자의 건강을 위한 산업보건기준에 관한 규칙에「사무실 오염으로 인한 건강장해의 예방」을 신설하였고, 점차로 기준 오염물질이 증가하는 등 관심이 증가하고 있으나, 사무실 내 공기질의 관한 연구는 자료가 매우 빈약한 수준이다. 사무실의 실내공기오염물질에 대한 합리적 기준제시, 처리기술의 목표설정 및 정책 결정에 있어서 과학적 자료를 제공하기 위해서는, 사무실 공기질에 대한 근로자의 건강위해성평가의 연구 수행이 요구되고 있다. 본 연구는 사무실 근로자들을 대상으로 실내공기오염물질 중 발암성물질로 알려진 formaldehyde의 노출에 의한 건강위해도를 평가함에 있어 기존의 측정방법을 검토하여 제한점을 제시하였고, 사무실 근로자의 formaldehyde에 대한 장시간 개인노출 평가를 시행한 오염의 농도 값을 이용하여 보다 신뢰성 있는 건강위해성평가를 수행함으로써, 향후 국내 사무실내 공기질 관리정책 및 공기오염에 따른 건강위해성평가 연구 수행에 있어 기초자료로 활용되어지는 것을 목표로 본 연구는 수행되었다. 본 연구의 수행을 통해 산출된 결과를 요약하여 제시하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 장시간 측정용 formaldehyde 흡착제 개발에 있어 지지체로 사용한 silica를 속실렛 장치를 이용하여 정제하고, 그 처리 결과를 전자 현미경으로 확인한 결과 silica 표면의 불순물이 제거된 모습을 확인할 수 있었으며, 동시에 EDX로 scanning 한 결과, 유기물의 함유율이 4.5% 이상 감소한 것으로 나타났다. 유도체 시약 코팅 Lot별 재현성을 평가를 한 결과 RSD가 6.58로 재현성이 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 개발 흡착제의 성능을 평가하기 위하여 비교 대상 cartridge를 선정하였고, 각각의 대상 cartridge에 대하여 오차의 발생 정도를 평가한 결과 A:0.13%, B:0.33%, C:0.12%로 3종류의 흡착 cartridge 모두 좋은 재현성을 나타내었다. Cartridge별 blank test를 시행한 결과 A=134pg, B=250pg, C=260pg의 blank 값을 보였다. SD 값은 A=3.91, B=12.6, C=1.58로 조사되어 개발 흡착제의 SD 값이 1.58로 가장 고른 blank 값의 분포를 나타내었다. 개발 흡착제는 formaldehyde를 비롯한 carbonyl compounds 분석에 사용하는 흡착제로서, 대상 cartridge와 비교해서 동등 이상의 성능을 가진 것으로 평가되었고, 여기에 장시간 측정과 고농도 측정에도 가능한 것으로 개발하여, 모든 대기질 분석에 활용할 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. 둘째, 사무실 내 formaldehyde의 측정방법에 대해 검토해 보기 위하여 근로자의 근무시간인 업무시간대에 1시간 간격으로 총 8차례에 걸려 30분씩 formaldehyde를 측정․
URI
https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/139984http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000416964
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GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > HEALTH SCIENCES(보건학과) > Theses (Ph.D.)
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