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남북한 문화갈등과 문화통합

Title
남북한 문화갈등과 문화통합
Other Titles
Cultural Conflict and Integration between South and North Korea: Focusing on Cultural Adaptive Problems of North Korean Migrants
Author
모춘흥
Alternative Author(s)
MO, Chun Heung
Advisor(s)
홍용표
Issue Date
2012-02
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Master
Abstract
통일 독일의 사례에서 우리는 제도적 통합 이후에도, 또 그 이전에도 분단국가들 사이에는 일정한 정도의 문화적 분열과 갈등이 존재한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 이점에 착안하여 본 연구는 북한이탈주민들이 남한 사회에 적응해 가는 과정에서 겪고 있는 문화적 갈등의 문제를 토대로 제도적 통합이후 나타날 수 있는 문화적 갈등양상을 예견해 보고자 하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 보통 통일은 남북한 단일정부를 수립하는데 주안점을 두는 정치제도적 통합으로 이해되기 쉽다. 하지만 통일은 제도적 통합을 넘어 남북한 주민들 간의 의식과 가치관의 통합을 의미하는 문화적 통합까지를 포괄한다. 본 연구에서 남북한 통일에 대한 접근방안으로 문화적 통합에 주목하는 이유는 제도적 통합이 통일의 거시적 측면의 틀을 규정한다면 실질적인 통일은 사회통합에서 이루어지며, 이 과정에서 문화는 매우 중요한 기제이기 때문이다. 하지만 현재 남북한의 문화는 심각할 정도로 이질화되어 있다. 남북한 문화의 이질화는 지난 60여 년간 상응하기 어려운 두 사회체제의 존립과 근대화에 따른 사회구조의 변동 및 문화 적응의 귀결이라고 할 수 있다. 특히 자유민주주의와 자본주의를 기반으로 하는 남한체제와, 인민민주주의와 사회주의를 기반으로 하는 북한체제 간에 상응성이 거의 없다는 사실이 남북한 문화적 이질화의 가장 큰 원인이다. 결과적으로 남북한의 문화는 이념적 지향, 언어관, 공식적 규범 및 가치체계, 생활문화 등에서 이질성을 보이고 있다. 문제는 심각할 정도로 이질성을 보이고 있는 남북한의 문화는 통합의 과정에서 서로 조화되지 못하고 새로운 유형의 갈등을 만들어 낼 수 있다. 서로 다른 사회체제에서 살면서 상이한 의식과 사고, 생활관, 생활 감각이 형성된 사람들이 만날 경우, 이들 상호 간에 낯선 것들이 조화되지 못하고 충돌하는 것은 어찌 보면 당연한 결과이다. 통일 이후 독일사회에서 나타나고 있는 문화적 갈등의 문제들은 오랜 분단기간 동안 형성되었던 문화적 이질화의 결과 때문에 발생한 것이다. 그리고 이러한 모습은 우리에게도 나타나고 있다. 현재 북한이탈주민들이 남한사회에 적응해 가는 과정에서 많은 문화적 갈등을 겪고 있으며, 이는 각 개인의 문제를 넘어 심각한 사회문제로 대두되고 있다. 구체적으로 북한이탈주민들은 직장을 구하는 문제, 언어적응의 문제, 남한 주민의 편견과 차별, 재사회화에 실패에 따른 스트레스로 인해 남한사회에 적응하는 데에 어려움을 겪고 있다. 그렇다면 남북한 문화통합연구에 있어서 북한이탈주민문제가 주는 시사점은 무엇인가? 가장 근본적인 시사점은, 북한이탈주민들이 남한사회에 적응하는 과정에서 겪고 있는 문화적 갈등의 문제는 앞으로 남한 주민과 북한 주민 간의 문화적 통합을 실현하는데 유사 모델을 제공해줄 수 있다. 문화통합은 제도적 통합과는 다르게, 긴 시간의 축을 가지고 점진적으로 이루어가는 과정적 작업이다. 오랜 분단기간 동안 현성된 남북한의 문화적 이질성의 모습은 어느 일방의 모습이 아닌 양자 모두의 모습이다. 결과적으로 문화통합을 위해서 변화되어야 하는 대상 역시 남과 북, 둘 다이다. 더 나아가 문화통합은 분단이전에 남북한 공히 가지고 있었던 동질성의 회복이 아닌, 서로 간의 차이를 다양성으로 인정하는 차원에서 남과 북의 문화적 공존을 모색하는 것이다. |In the reunified Germany case, we were able to find that after institutional integration and before, a certain degree of cultural schism and conflict among divided countries exists. From this point of view, the purpose of this study was to analyze aspects of cultural conflict that may occur after institutional integration through North Korean migrants facing the cultural conflict in the process adapting to South Korea. Generally, unification is likely to be understand as political and institutional integration that puts emphasis on establishing a single government between South and North Korea. But unification includes cultural integration that means the integration of consciousness and values between South and North Korean people beyond institutional integration. In this study, the reason we pay attention to cultural integration as approaches to South and North unification is as follows. While institutional integration regulates the frame of the macroscopic side of unification, substantial unification becomes accomplished from social integration, and in this process culture is a very important mechanism. But currently the culture between South and North Korea becomes seriously heterogeneous. The cultural heterogeneity between South and North Korea is the existence of two social systems difficult to correspond with and changes of social structure as well as a consequence of cultural adaptation according to the modernization over the sixty years. In particular, that the South Korean structure based on liberal democracy and capitalist system, North Korean structure based on people's democracy and socialism are little compatible is the most likely cause of the cultural heterogeneity between two Koreas. As a result, the culture between two Koreas are showing heterogeneity, such as the ideological orientation, an outlook on language, value system, and living culture. The culture between two Koreas which seems seriously heterogeneous is a possibility of a new type of conflict, inconsistent with each other in the process of integration. If people that have different consciousness, thinking, outlook on living, and sense of life formed in different social system meet, it is natural to not harmonize but collide each other. The problems of cultural conflict appearing in Germany after reunification occurred due to cultural heterogeneity formed during the long division. And this view appears to us. Now North Korean migrants have undergone cultural conflict in the process of adapting to South Korea, and this is serious social problems beyond the individual's problem. Specifically, North Korean migrants have a difficulty in adjusting South Korea such as obtaining a job, problems of language adaptation, prejudice and discrimination of South Korean people, and stress in the failure of re-socialization. If so, what is the implications which the problems related North Korean migrants give to study cultural integration between two Koreas. The most fundamental implications, the problems of North Korean migrants' cultural conflict in the process of adapting to South Korea in the future can provide similar model which realize cultural integration between South and North Korean people. Cultural integration, unlike the institutional integration, is a process work with the axis of a long time. The appearances of cultural heterogeneity formed between two Koreas during the long division are not the features of one side but both. As a result, the target needed to change in order for cultural integration also is South and North Korea, both. Further, cultural integration is not the restoration of homogeneity which the South and North Korea had previously in common before division, but tries to explore cultural coexistence which considers the differences between two Koreas as diversity.
In the reunified Germany case, we were able to find that after institutional integration and before, a certain degree of cultural schism and conflict among divided countries exists. From this point of view, the purpose of this study was to analyze aspects of cultural conflict that may occur after institutional integration through North Korean migrants facing the cultural conflict in the process adapting to South Korea. Generally, unification is likely to be understand as political and institutional integration that puts emphasis on establishing a single government between South and North Korea. But unification includes cultural integration that means the integration of consciousness and values between South and North Korean people beyond institutional integration. In this study, the reason we pay attention to cultural integration as approaches to South and North unification is as follows. While institutional integration regulates the frame of the macroscopic side of unification, substantial unification becomes accomplished from social integration, and in this process culture is a very important mechanism. But currently the culture between South and North Korea becomes seriously heterogeneous. The cultural heterogeneity between South and North Korea is the existence of two social systems difficult to correspond with and changes of social structure as well as a consequence of cultural adaptation according to the modernization over the sixty years. In particular, that the South Korean structure based on liberal democracy and capitalist system, North Korean structure based on people's democracy and socialism are little compatible is the most likely cause of the cultural heterogeneity between two Koreas. As a result, the culture between two Koreas are showing heterogeneity, such as the ideological orientation, an outlook on language, value system, and living culture. The culture between two Koreas which seems seriously heterogeneous is a possibility of a new type of conflict, inconsistent with each other in the process of integration. If people that have different consciousness, thinking, outlook on living, and sense of life formed in different social system meet, it is natural to not harmonize but collide each other. The problems of cultural conflict appearing in Germany after reunification occurred due to cultural heterogeneity formed during the long division. And this view appears to us. Now North Korean migrants have undergone cultural conflict in the process of adapting to South Korea, and this is serious social problems beyond the individual's problem. Specifically, North Korean migrants have a difficulty in adjusting South Korea such as obtaining a job, problems of language adaptation, prejudice and discrimination of South Korean people, and stress in the failure of re-socialization. If so, what is the implications which the problems related North Korean migrants give to study cultural integration between two Koreas. The most fundamental implications, the problems of North Korean migrants' cultural conflict in the process of adapting to South Korea in the future can provide similar model which realize cultural integration between South and North Korean people. Cultural integration, unlike the institutional integration, is a process work with the axis of a long time. The appearances of cultural heterogeneity formed between two Koreas during the long division are not the features of one side but both. As a result, the target needed to change in order for cultural integration also is South and North Korea, both. Further, cultural integration is not the restoration of homogeneity which the South and North Korea had previously in common before division, but tries to explore cultural coexistence which considers the differences between two Koreas as diversity.
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http://dcollection.hanyang.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000062808https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/137112
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GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES(정치외교학과) > Theses (Master)
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