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국민연금제도의 신뢰도 결정요인

Title
국민연금제도의 신뢰도 결정요인
Author
유병민
Advisor(s)
이희선
Issue Date
2012-08
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Master
Abstract
국민연금제도는 고령화 시대에 있어서 노후생활 안정을 위해 도입된 제도이다. 그럼에도 불구하고 국민연금제도가 전 국민을 대상으로 확대되는 시기에 국민연금제도에 대한 이해의 부족, 기금고갈에 대한 불안감과 지역가입자와 사업장가입자간의 형평성에 대한 불만 등으로 인해 국민연금제도에 대한 신뢰도는 매우 낮게 평가되었다. 이로 인해 가입율의 저조, 체납률 증가라는 문제점을 야기하였으며 국민연금제도 시행에도 상당한 어려움을 겪었다. 본 연구는 이러한 문제의식 하에 국민연금 가입자를 대상으로 국민연금제도의 신뢰도에 영향을 미치는 요인들을 분석하고자 하였다. 구체적으로 국민연금제도의 신뢰도 향상을 위한 주요 요인으로써 국민연금제도 내용에 대한 이해수준, 국민연금제도가 필요하다고 생각하는 정도 및 국민연금제도 관리의 적절성에 대한 인식수준이 신뢰도에 영향을 미치는지에 대하여 실증적 분석을 시행하였다. 본 연구의 방법은 탐색적 조사와 기술적 조사, 그리고 설명적 연구방법을 병행하여 실시하였다. 이론적 배경은 문헌조사를 통하여 이루어졌으며 실증적 자료는 설문지를 통한 1차 자료를 활용하였다. 자료의 분석은 관련 변수들 간의 관계를 알아보기 위해 빈도분석, 분산분석을 실시하였으며 분석에 사용된 변수인 국민연금제도의 이해수준, 국민연금제도의 필요성 및 국민연금제도 관리의 적절성에 대한 인식수준, 국민연금제도의 신뢰도간에 관련성을 분석하기 위하여 상관관계 분석을 실시하였다. 그리고 독립변수인 국민연금제도의 이해수준, 국민연금제도의 필요성 및 국민연금제도 관리의 적절성에 대한 인식수준이 종속변수인 국민연금제도의 신뢰도에 미치는 영향을 파악하고자 회귀분석을 실시하였다. 연구결과 국민연금제도에 대한 이해수준, 국민연금제도의 필요성 및 국민연금제도 관리의 적절성에 대한 인식수준은 국민연금제도의 신뢰도에 상당한 영향을 미치는 것으로 분석되었다. 이를 구체적으로 살펴보면 첫째, 국민연금제도에 대한 이해수준이 높을수록 신뢰도가 높게 나타났다. 둘째, 국민연금제도의 필요성에 대한 인식은 다른 변인보다 상대적으로 높게 평가되고 있었다. 즉, 국민연금제도가 노후보장을 위해 필요한 제도라고 생각할수록 신뢰도가 높아지는 경향이 있었다. 그러나 국민연금제도가 사회연대성을 위해서 필요한 제도라고 생각하는 정도는 신뢰도와는 유의적인 영향력이 없는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 국민연금제도 관리가 적절하다고 평가하는 데에 있어서는 기금운용관리가 가장 낮게 평가되고 있으며, 소득신고관리의 적절성이 그 다음 순으로 평가되었다. 제도관리의 적절성 요인 중 제도 홍보의 적절성은 가장 높게 평가되었다. 또한, 신뢰도에 대한 영향력에 대해서는 국민연금제도의 기금운용관리와 제도홍보가 적절하게 관리되고 있다고 생각할수록 국민연금제도의 신뢰도가 유의적으로 상승하는 경향이 있었으나 소득신고관리는 유의적인 영향력이 다소 적은 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 개인적 특성에 따라 국민연금제도의 신뢰도 차이를 살펴보면 성별로는 여성이 남성보다, 연령별로는 나이가 많을수록 국민연금제도에 대하여 더 신뢰하는 경향이 있었다. 가입 유형별은 지역가입자가 사업장가입자보다 국민연금제도를 더 신뢰하는 것으로 나타났다. 지역별로는 서울시가 경기도나 대전시에 거주하는 대상자보다 더 신뢰하는 것으로 나타났다. 기존 선행연구에서는 소득수준과 교육수준이 신뢰도에 유의한 차이를 보이는 데 비해 본 연구에서는 유의미한 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 국민연금 가입자들은 국민연금제도가 필요하다고 인식하지만 노후생활 준비자금으로써 충분하다고는 인식하지 않는 경향이 있었다. 국민연금제도의 신뢰도에 영향을 미치는 요인들을 바탕으로 국민연금제도에 대한 이해를 향상시키기 위한 교육프로그램의 활성화 방안과 사회구성원들이 더불어 살아갈 수 있는 사회 연대의식을 강화하고, 최소한의 노후대책을 위한 국민연금제도의 필요성에 대한 인식이 확산될 수 있도록 노력해야 할 것이며, 국민연금제도의 낮은 신뢰도에 가장 영향을 미치는 기금운영의 적절성에 대한 가입자들의 인식수준이 변화할 수 있도록 꾸준한 노력을 해야 할 것이다. 아울러, 사회적 변화와 제도 현실에 대한 가입자들의 공감대를 형성하도록 하고 기금의 안정화를 위한 정책적 대안이 절실히 필요하다 할 것이다.|National pension system was introduced to make retirement stable at this aging society. Even though the importance of national pension system, when the national pension was spreading for whole nations, the national pension system was evaluated lowly because of lack of comprehension about the national pension, anxiety about depletion of fund, and complaints of equality between local members and business members. Because of these problems, they drove problems to gather members and to fail to pay. It is hard to operate the national pension system. This study tried to analyze elements to influence reliability of the national pension system with people who participated as objectives. As specifically there are important elements to improve reliability of national pension system, this study analyzed practically reliability of the system to be influenced from a level of awareness such as comprehension about national pension system, needs of the national pension system, and adequacy of managing national pension system. This study operated researches with exploratory research, technical research, and explanatory research. Theoretical background was operated from literature researches, and empirical research utilized a primary source from survey. This study analyzed frequency analysis and variance analysis to research relationship between each related variable, and this study operated correlation analysis to analyze correlation among the variables such as level of awareness about national pension system, needs of national pension system, level of awareness about adequacy of managing national pension system, and reliability of national pension system. This study operated regression analysis to research effectiveness of variables such as level of awareness about national pension system, needs of national pension system, and level of awareness about national pension system for reliability of national pension system. As the results of research, the variables could influence the reliability of national pension system. Looking at these specifically, first when the level of awareness about national pension system is higher, there is higher reliability. Second, the needs of national pension system were evaluated higher than the other variables. Indeed, when people though national pension system is needed for security in old age, there is higher reliability. However, there were not meaningful relationship between the thought of people to need national pension system and reliability. Third, in the evaluation of proper management for national pension system, fund operating management showed the less assessment, and adequacy of managing income return was evaluated next to the fund operating management. In among elements of adequacy of managing system, adequacy of advertisement was the highest assessment. Also, in effectiveness about reliability, when people more thought fund operating management and advertising the system is proper, the reliability of national pension system increases meaningfully, but income return shows less meaningful effectiveness. Fourth, as looking at reliability differences following individual characteristics, in case of gender female more trusts it than male, and in case of age the older people more believe it than younger people. In case of membership type, local membership more trusts the national pension system than business membership. In case of region, residents of Seoul more believe it than people in Gyeonggi or Daejeon. Advanced studies showed meaningful differences of reliability from income and level of education, but this study found there were not meaningful differences between them. Also, members of the national pension system knew to necessity of national pension system, but they didn't consider the national pension system is not enough to prepare old age. Based on the variables to affect reliability of the national pension system, it should be reinforced that education program to improve understanding national pension system and society conscience solidarity to live together. It should be spread that minimum conscience of needs for national pension system to prepare old age. It should be effort that members' level of awareness about adequacy of managing fund operation to most influence low reliability of the national pension system could change. In addition, it should be constructed that consensus of members about social change and system reality, and political alternative should be desperately needed to make fund stable.; National pension system was introduced to make retirement stable at this aging society. Even though the importance of national pension system, when the national pension was spreading for whole nations, the national pension system was evaluated lowly because of lack of comprehension about the national pension, anxiety about depletion of fund, and complaints of equality between local members and business members. Because of these problems, they drove problems to gather members and to fail to pay. It is hard to operate the national pension system. This study tried to analyze elements to influence reliability of the national pension system with people who participated as objectives. As specifically there are important elements to improve reliability of national pension system, this study analyzed practically reliability of the system to be influenced from a level of awareness such as comprehension about national pension system, needs of the national pension system, and adequacy of managing national pension system. This study operated researches with exploratory research, technical research, and explanatory research. Theoretical background was operated from literature researches, and empirical research utilized a primary source from survey. This study analyzed frequency analysis and variance analysis to research relationship between each related variable, and this study operated correlation analysis to analyze correlation among the variables such as level of awareness about national pension system, needs of national pension system, level of awareness about adequacy of managing national pension system, and reliability of national pension system. This study operated regression analysis to research effectiveness of variables such as level of awareness about national pension system, needs of national pension system, and level of awareness about national pension system for reliability of national pension system. As the results of research, the variables could influence the reliability of national pension system. Looking at these specifically, first when the level of awareness about national pension system is higher, there is higher reliability. Second, the needs of national pension system were evaluated higher than the other variables. Indeed, when people though national pension system is needed for security in old age, there is higher reliability. However, there were not meaningful relationship between the thought of people to need national pension system and reliability. Third, in the evaluation of proper management for national pension system, fund operating management showed the less assessment, and adequacy of managing income return was evaluated next to the fund operating management. In among elements of adequacy of managing system, adequacy of advertisement was the highest assessment. Also, in effectiveness about reliability, when people more thought fund operating management and advertising the system is proper, the reliability of national pension system increases meaningfully, but income return shows less meaningful effectiveness. Fourth, as looking at reliability differences following individual characteristics, in case of gender female more trusts it than male, and in case of age the older people more believe it than younger people. In case of membership type, local membership more trusts the national pension system than business membership. In case of region, residents of Seoul more believe it than people in Gyeonggi or Daejeon. Advanced studies showed meaningful differences of reliability from income and level of education, but this study found there were not meaningful differences between them. Also, members of the national pension system knew to necessity of national pension system, but they didn't consider the national pension system is not enough to prepare old age. Based on the variables to affect reliability of the national pension system, it should be reinforced that education program to improve understanding national pension system and society conscience solidarity to live together. It should be spread that minimum conscience of needs for national pension system to prepare old age. It should be effort that members' level of awareness about adequacy of managing fund operation to most influence low reliability of the national pension system could change. In addition, it should be constructed that consensus of members about social change and system reality, and political alternative should be desperately needed to make fund stable.
URI
https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/136474http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000420065
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GRADUATE SCHOOL OF PUBLIC POLICY[S](공공정책대학원) > SOCIAL WELFARE(사회복지학과) > Theses (Master)
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