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한식 레스토랑의 실내 공간 디자인 특성과 고객 만족에 관한 연구

Title
한식 레스토랑의 실내 공간 디자인 특성과 고객 만족에 관한 연구
Other Titles
A Study about Interior Design Characteristics and Customer Satisfaction of Korean Restaurants:Focusing on Seoul and New York Modernized Upscale Korean Restaurants
Author
김윤아
Alternative Author(s)
Kim, Youn A
Advisor(s)
신경주
Issue Date
2013-08
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Master
Abstract
한식은 웰빙트랜드에 부합되는 음식으로 전 세계인들에게 주목을 받고 있다. 이와 함께 등장한 한식세계화 사업은 음식을 넘어 이를 제공하는 공간으로 범위를 넓히며 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑이 등장하였다. 이는 최근 글로벌을 지향하는 세계화에 발맞춰 우리 고유의 전통요소에 서양의 현대식요소를 도입하여 고급화를 기반으로 등장한 레스토랑으로, 한국의 수도인 서울을 시작으로 아시아, 미국 등 전 세계적으로 그 범위가 확장되고 있다. 특히 한식세계화의 시발점인 한국의 수도인 서울에서는 한식을 세계화시키기 위한 노력들이 다양하게 모색되고 있다. 또한 뉴욕은 여러 인종들이 모여 살면서 문화를 선도하는 곳으로 외국에서는 한식세계화가 집중되고 있는 곳이다. 이러한 배경 하에, 본 연구에서는 한식세계화 사업이 집중되고 있는 서울과 뉴욕을 조사대상으로 선정하여 한식세계화 방안으로 등장한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑을 대상으로 하였다. 연구내용은 이곳의 실내 공간 디자인 특성의 조사 분석과, 이곳을 이용하는 고객들을 대상으로 한 만족도 조사를 통해 고객 만족도 특성 분석을 하였다. 이를 토대로 서울과 뉴욕의 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑 공간디자인과 고객 만족도를 비교분석하였다. 연구방법은 조사대상지 선정을 위해 공간적으로는 인터넷과 관련 책, 잡지를 통해 현대식의 조건이 충족된 서울과 뉴욕의 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑으로 한정하고, 시간적으로는 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑이 등장하기 시작한 2008년 이후에 오픈하거나 리모델링한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑으로 한정하여 뉴욕 5곳, 서울 5곳 총 10곳을 선정하였다. 선정된 조사대상지 10곳을 현장 방문하여 실내 공간 디자인 특성으로 일반적 개요, 공간구성 배치 특성, 실내 디자인 특성을 조사 ᠊ 분석하고, 조사대상지 10곳을 이용하는 고객 196명에게 설문조사를 실시하였다. 연구결과 처리는 설문조사지의 신뢰도는 전체 문항에 대한 Cronbach's Alpha계수 평균이 0.895로 매우 높은 신뢰도 결과를 얻었으며, 이에 만족도 특성 항목을 Likert 5점 척도(1=매우 불만족, 3=보통, 5=매우 만족)로 분석 하였다. 또한 SPSS 18.0 통계프로그램을 이용하여 고객 만족도 특성(고객 특성, 이용 특성, 만족도 특성)에 대해서는 빈도, 백분율, 평균 등으로 분석하였으며, 만족도에 영향을 미치는 매개변수를 알아보기 위하여 t-test 및 One-way ANOVA를 실시하여 집단 간의 평균을 비교분석하고, Duncan test를 통하여 집단별 차이를 검증하였다. 이 결과는 서울과 뉴욕을 넘어 전 세계로 뻗어나갈 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑의 공간디자인 시에 디자인 방향의 제시와 더불어 고객의 요구에 부합하는 공간디자인과 마케팅 방향 설정에 귀중한 자료로 이용되기를 기대한다. 본 연구에서 나타난 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 서울과 뉴욕에 소재한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑의 일반적 개요를 비교분석한 결과, 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑은 본격적으로 2011년 뉴욕에서 먼저 건립되어 2012년 서울에 건립된 것으로 나타났다. 이는 서양의 요소를 도입한 현대식 한식레스토랑이 외국인의 취향에 맞게 디자인된 것으로 뉴욕에서 시발점이 된 것으로 판단된다. 이곳의 위치는 뉴욕이 서울에 비해 접근성이 좋은 상권에 위치해 있었으나 큰 규모에 한정되지는 않았다. 또한 뉴욕은 개인형 프랜차이즈 형태의 레스토랑인 반면에 서울은 기업형의 독립형태 레스토랑으로 나타났다. 이는 뉴욕이 서울에 비해 현대식 고급 한식 레스토랑의 구축망이 발달되고 있는 것으로 판단되었다. 상호는 뉴욕과 서울 모두 대부분 한글에서 의미를 가져왔고, 표기는 한글과 한자, 영어를 함께 표기하였다. 따라서 앞으로 서울과 뉴욕에 오픈하는 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑은 이러한 흐름을 숙지할 필요성이 있을 것으로 사료되었다. 둘째, 서울과 뉴욕에 소재한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑 공간구성에서의 배치 특성을 공간 구성요소와 공간 배치 특성으로 분류하여 비교분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 공간 구성요소는 실내 공간의 기능에 따라 서울은 리셉션, 정원, 홀, 룸으로 분류되었고, 뉴욕은 리셉션, 바, 홀, 룸으로 분류되어, 정원과 바 공간 구성요소에 대해 차이가 나타났다. 이러한 차이는 들여오고자 하는 공간 또는 필요에 의해 생겨난 공간에 대한 문화의 차이로 판단되며, 이러한 요소들을 타겟 고객층에 맞추어서 계획하며 ᠊ 디자인 되어야 할 것이다. 2) 공간 배치 특성은 공간 구성요소에 따라 분류된 공간 중 식사를 하는 공간인 홀과 룸의 비율로 분석하였다. 그 결과, 서울은 주로 룸 중심형인 반면에 뉴욕은 모두 홀 중심형으로 차이가 나타났다. 이 차이는 개방적 공간을 선호하는 뉴욕 고객과 개인공간으로 비개방적인 공간을 선호하는 서울 고객의 요구에 맞춰 디자인 된 특성으로 판단되어, 공간계획 시에 고려되어야 할 것이다. 셋째, 서울과 뉴욕에 소재한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑의 실내디자인 특성 비교분석 결과, 리셉션 공간은 뉴욕이 서울에 비해 기능의 간소화로 공간과 가구의 크기가 작게 디자인 되었다. 또한 뉴욕에서는 외국 레스토랑인 한식레스토랑에 들어서면 처음 대면하는 리셉션 공간에 많은 전통요소를 장식하여 한국적 분위기를 표현하고 있었다. 홀 공간은 뉴욕이 서울에 비해 천정마감재에 전통요소를 모티브로 디자인한 구조물을 설치하여 디자인 하며, 상호와 연관성 있는 소품을 장식하여 공간 안에서 디자인에 일관성을 부여하고 있었다. 룸 공간은 서울이 뉴욕에 비해 룸을 선호하는 문화로 룸 디자인에 비중을 두었고, 마감재와 소품에는 전통요소를 많이 사용하고 있었다. 넷째, 서울과 뉴욕에 소재한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑의 고객 특성 비교분석 결과, 주 고객층은 서울과 뉴욕 모두 대학교 이상의 학력을 가진 고학력자로 월 평균 300만원이상의 소득자이고, 월 평균 외식비용으로 60만원이상을 소비하는 고객층이었다. 그러나 서울은 주로 3,40대 여성들이 주 고객층인 반면에 뉴욕은 주로 4,50대 남,녀가 비슷한 비율로 주 고객층이었다. 고객 특성(조사기간에 방문고객 경우)은 뉴욕에 소재한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑 고객들의 연령층이 서울에 비해 좀 더 높았는데, 그 이유는 뉴욕의 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑 식사비용이 다른 레스토랑에 비해 다소 높아 경제적 여유층인 연령대가 이용한 결과로 유추된다. 따라서 뉴욕의 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑 설계 시의 타겟층은 서울에 비해 좀 더 높게 겨냥하는 것이 바람직하며, 뉴욕의 젊은층에 한식을 어필하기 위한 전략마케팅 방안이 필요한 것으로 사료된다. 한편 서울은 높은 연령층까지 어우를 수 있는 고급화된 디자인과 서비스가 수반된 마케팅 활동이 필요하겠다. 다섯째, 서울과 뉴욕에 소재한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑 이용특성을 선호레스토랑과 한식레스토랑으로 분류하여 비교분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 선호레스토랑에서는 서울과 뉴욕 고객 모두 한식레스토랑을 분위기나 사교를 위해 격식을 차려야 할 때 방문하는 공간으로 선호하고 있지는 않았다. 이에 앞으로 한식레스토랑에 대한 이미지 재고의 필요성이 시사되며, 고급화를 통한 이미지 개선이 필요한 것으로 판단된다. 2) 한식레스토랑에서는 서울의 고객은 식사나 사교, 일을 위해 친구나 가족과 함께 방문하나 뉴욕의 고객들은 사교나 일을 위해 친구 또는 직장동료와 함께 방문하였다. 이와 같은 결과는 뉴욕의 고객들이 한식을 친구 또는 직장동료에게 소개를 목적으로 방문하는 비율이 높기 때문인 것으로 관찰되었다. 이에 서울은 가족, 친구들과 함께 방문하기에 적합한 격식 있는 고급스러운 디자인이 우선되어야 할 것이며, 뉴욕은 친구, 직장동료들과 방문하기에 적합한 편안하고 친근한 디자인이 우선되어 서울과 뉴욕의 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑 고객들의 방문목적에 부합되는 공간을 고려한 디자인이 되어야 할 것이다. 여섯째, 서울과 뉴욕에 소재한 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑 만족도 특성 비교분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 서울은 전반, 환경, 실내, 음식 순으로 만족도가 높게 나타났고, 뉴욕은 환경, 전반, 실내, 음식 순으로 만족도가 높게 나타났다. 이에 서울과 뉴욕 모두 비교적 실내와 음식에 대한 만족도가 낮은 것으로 나타나, 이 부분에 대한 만족도를 높이기 위한 개선방안이 필요할 것으로 판단되었다. 2) 실내 만족도는 마감재에 대한 만족도는 서울(3.30점)과 뉴욕(3.86점) 모두 보통 수준이었으나, 뉴욕이 조금 더 높았는데 이는 뉴욕이 마감재에 전통요소를 많이 도입하여 디자인한 결과에 의한 것으로 판단되어 서울도 이러한 전통요소들을 가미한 디자인이 많을수록 만족도가 상승할 것으로 유추할 수 있다. 색채에 대한 만족도는 서울(3.66점)이 비교적 높고, 뉴욕(3.18점)이 비교적 낮았다. 서울과 뉴욕 모두 자연색인 흰색, 갈색, 회색을 사용하면서 오방색, 빨강색, 금색 등으로 공간에 포인트를 주는 색채 디자인이었으나 서울과 뉴욕 고객의 색채 만족도에는 차이가 있었으므로 이점을 고려하여 서울과 뉴욕에 다른 색채 디자인이 적용 되어야 할 것이다. 가구 및 소품에 대한 만족도는 서울(3.10점), 뉴욕(3.48점) 모두 비교적 낮은 보통 수준의 만족도이었으므로 만족도를 향상시킬 수 있는 개선점이 필요한 것으로 사료된다. 이에 이곳에서 사용하는 현대식 입식가구의 크기, 공간, 재질 등의 적절함에 대한 검토가 필요한 것으로 판단된다. 3) 음식 만족도는 서울과 뉴욕 모두 종류의 다양성에 대한 만족도는 높게 나타났으나, 담음새에 대한 만족도는 서울(3.95점)이 뉴욕(3.07점)에 비해 높게 나타나, 뉴욕에 소재한 한식레스토랑도 서양의 담음새와 코스식 서비스를 가미한 서울 방식을 도입하면 고객들의 만족도가 향상 될 것으로 유추할 수 있다. 4) 전반 만족도는 서울(전체 공간크기
3.99점, 개인 공간크기
3.90점)이 뉴욕(전체 공간크기
3.46점, 개인 공간크기
3.28점)에 비해 비교적 높게 나타났다. 이는 큰 규모를 선호했던 서울의 만족도가 높았던 것으로 판단되어 뉴욕에서도 가능한 규모를 크게 설계하면 만족도가 높아질 것으로 기대할 수 있으나 이 부분은 경제에 대한 합의점이 필요하므로, 실질적으로 작은 공간에서도 개인 공간 크기의 만족도를 향상시키도록 권한다. 방법으로는 파티션 도입과 같은 디자인적인 측면에서 분리를 느끼게 하는 방법이 모색되어야 할 것이다. 외, 내부 인테리어 만족도는 서울(외부
3.63점, 내부
3.40점), 뉴욕(외부
3.38점, 내부
3.39점) 모두 보통을 조금 상회하여 이에 대한 만족도를 향상시키기 위한 개선이 시급한 것으로 판단된다. 5) 환경 만족도는 서울과 뉴욕이 확연한 차이가 나타났다. 접근이 용이하지 않았던 서울(2.91점)이 접근성이 좋았던 뉴욕(4.21점)보다 1점 이상 차이를 보여 조용한 곳으로 자연경치가 있는 것도 좋으나 접근이 용이하지 않은 상권은 만족도가 낮아지므로 양자 균형점을 찾는 방법이 모색 되어야 할 것이다. 전체적으로 보면, 서울의 전체 평균 만족도(3.42점)가 뉴욕(3.56점) 보다 조금 낮았으며, 양쪽 모두 고객 만족도가 4점에 못 미치는 수준이었다. 따라서 전체적인 고객만족도 향상을 위한 개선방안이 필요한 것으로 사료된다. 이 연구는 한식세계화의 방안으로 등장한 서울과 뉴욕의 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑을 대상으로 실내 공간 디자인 특성을 분석하고 그 결과를 토대로 고객만족에 관한 연구를 수행한 점에서 의미 있는 연구가 될 것으로 사료되며, 이 연구 결과는 서울과 뉴욕을 넘어 세계로 진출하는 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑의 실내 공간 디자인 가이드라인 설정시의 유익한 기초자료로 이용 될 수 있다고 본다. 이 결과를 통해, 서울과 뉴욕에 소재한 현대식 한식레스토랑이 각 지역의 고객 만족도 특성에 더 부합되는 공간 계획을 하여 고객의 만족도가 높은 한식 레스토랑으로 거듭 나기를 기대한다. 그러나 표본의 한정으로 일반화에 한계점을 가져 아쉬움을 남긴다. 이에 향후 연구에서는 이 연구 결과를 기초로 표본을 확장한 심화된 연구가 되기를 기대하며, 또한 한식 레스토랑의 유형에 따른 좀 더 세분화된 분석틀을 가지고 뉴욕을 넘어 현대식 고급 한식레스토랑이 진출해 있는 다양한 도시에 대한 후속연구가 진행되기를 희망한다. |Korean food is receiving attention from the people in the world as the food according with the wellbeing trends. The Korean Food Globalization Project which was set up with that trend has contributed to the emergence of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants, expanding the space of providing wellbeing beyond food. These restaurants emerged based on the high quality style by introducing the Western modern elements to Korea's unique traditional elements in line with the recent globalization trends, expanding their scope from Seoul, the capital of Korea, to the world including Asia and the United States In particular, a variety of efforts to globalize Korean food are being sought in Seoul, the capital of Korea and the starting point of the globalization of Korean food. In addition, New York where different ethnic races are living and leading culture is the place where the globalization of Korean food is being concentrated. under this background, this study investigated the modern high-class Korean restaurants that emerged as a way of the globalization of Korean food by selecting Seoul and New York where the Korean Food Globalization Project is being concentrated. This study analyzed the characteristics of customer satisfaction through the analysis for the characteristics of the interior space design of the modern high-level Korean restaurant and the satisfaction surveys for customers using these restaurants. Based on this, the space design and customer satisfaction with the modern high-class Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York were comparatively analyzed. For this study, a total of ten restaurants including five in New York and another five in Seoul were selected by limiting spatially to the modern high-class Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York that meet the condition of the modern restaurants through internet, related books and magazines and by limiting temporally to the modern high-class Korean restaurants that was opened or remodeled after 2008 when modern high-class restaurants began to appear. The characteristics of interior space design including general overview, characteristics of spatial configuration layout and characteristics of interior design were investigated for analysis by visiting these ten selected Korean restaurants and a survey was conducted by selecting 196 customers who use these Korean restaurants. As a result of processing the study results, a high reliability was obtained showing the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of average 0.895 for all questions, and the items of satisfaction characteristics were analyzed using Likert 5-point scale (1=very dissatisfied, 3=moderate, 5=very satisfied). In addition, customer satisfaction characteristics (customer characteristics, use characteristics, satisfaction characteristics) were analyzed for the frequency, percentage, mean, etc. by using the SPSS 18.0 statistical program. The mean between groups were comparatively analyzed by conducting the t-test and one-way ANOVA to investigate the parameter influencing satisfaction, and the differences between groups were verified through Duncan's test. It is expected that these results will be used as valuable resource important data for the presentation of design direction when designing the modern high-class Korean restaurants that will spread out through the world beyond Seoul and New York and for setting the direction of the spatial design and marketing that accords with customer demand. The results obtained in this study are as follows. First, as a result of comparatively analyzing the general overview of the modern high-class restaurants located in Seoul and New York, it appears that a modern high-class Korean restaurant was first built in New York in 2011 and then in Seoul in 2012. It is considered that the modern Korean restaurants that adopted Western elements were designed to suit the taste of foreigners in New York as the starting point. Although the modern Korean restaurants in New York are located in the commercial district with better accessibility as compared to those in Seoul, it was not limited to the large-scale restaurants. In addition, the Korean restaurants in New York were in the form of personal type franchise while those in Seoul was in the corporate form of independence type restaurants. It is considered that the network of the modern high-class Korean restaurants in New York is being developed as compared to that in Seoul. Each of the restaurant names in both Seoul and New York had its meaning derived from Hangul, the Korean language, and was written in Korean, Chinese and English. Therefore, it is thought that these trends need to be understood for the modern high-class Korean restaurants that will be opened in the future. Second, the results of comparatively analyzing the layout characteristics in the spatial configuration of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York by classifying them into spatial configuration elements and spatial layout characteristics are as follows. 1) The spatial configuration elements were classified into the reception, garden and rooms in Seoul and into the reception, bar hall and rooms in New York depending on the function of the interior space, showing the differences in the configuration elements of the garden and bar space. These differences are considered to be due to the cultural difference in the space to be brought in or created under the necessity, and these elements will need to be planned and designed in accordance with the target customers. 2) The spatial layout characteristics were analyzed by the percentage of the hall and rooms which are the space for dining out of the space classified depending on the spatial configuration elements. As a result, there was a difference between the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul that are mainly room-centered and those in New York that are all hall-centered. This difference is determined due to the characteristics designed to meet the demand of the customers in New York who prefer open space and the customers in Seoul who prefer private non-open space, and this will need to be considered when planning the space. Third, as a result of analyzing the characteristics of interior design of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York, the size of the space and furniture in the reception space of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York was designed to be smaller due to the simplification of the function. In addition, the Korean restaurants which are foreign restaurants in New York were representing the Korean atmosphere by decorating many Korean traditional elements at the reception space where customers are received for the first time when entering the restaurants. The modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York was giving consistency to the design in the hall space as compared to that in Seoul by installing the structure with the traditional elements designed as the motif on the ceiling finishing materials and by decorating interior decorative accessories associated with the restaurant name. The modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul put stress on the rooms as compared to those in New York, reflecting the culture of preferring private rooms and were using many traditional elements for the finishing materials and interior decorative accessories. Fourth, as a result of comparatively analyzing the customer characteristics of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York, the main customers of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in both Seoul and New York were all highly educated persons with a college diploma or higher and with an average monthly income of three million won, who spend more than six hundred thousand won per month on average for eating out. However, the main customers of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul were the women in their thirties and forties while those in New York were mainly men and women in their forties and fifties at the similar rate. In terms of the customer characteristics (of the customers who visited the restaurants during the period of the survey), the age group of the customers who visited the modernized upscale Korean restaurants located in New York was a little higher than that of Seoul, and it seems to be because the age group with economic the meal cost of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York is somewhat higher than other restaurants and the well-off age group uses the modernized upscale Korean restaurants. Therefore, it is desirable to target well-off people a little more as compared to Seoul when designing modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York, and it is thought that strategic marketing plans to make the Korean food appeal to the young people in New York. On the other hand, marketing activities accompanied by the high level design and service that can put the higher age group together will be needed in Seoul. Fifth, the results of comparatively analyzing the use characteristics of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants located in Seoul and New York by classifying into the preferred restaurants and Korean restaurants are as follows. 1) The customers in both Seoul and New York did not prefer the Korean restaurants as the space to visit when they need to stand on formality for the atmosphere or social intercourse. Thus, the need to enhance the image of the Korean restaurants is suggested, and it is considered that the improvement of the image is needed through upgrading Korean restaurants. 2) The customers in Seoul visited Korean restaurants with their friends or family for the purpose of socializing or business while the customers in New York visited Korean restaurants with their friends or colleagues for the purpose of socializing or work. These results were observed to be due to the high ratio of the customers who visit Korean restaurants to introduce Korean food to their friends or colleagues. Thus, the priority will need to put on the formal and luxurious designs suitable for the customers visiting Korean restaurants with their family and friends in the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul while the priority will need to be put on the comfortable and friendly design suitable for the customers to visit with their friends and colleagues in the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York in order to achieve the design that meets the purpose of the visit of the customers visiting the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York. Sixth, the results of analyzing the satisfaction characteristics of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York are as follows. 1) Satisfaction appeared to be in the order of the overall aspect, environment, interior and food in case of Seoul while it was in the order of the environment, overall aspect, interior and food in case of New York, showing that the satisfaction with interior and food was investigated to be relatively low in both Seoul and New York. Therefore, it was considered that the plans for improvement to increase the satisfaction in this part are needed. 2) As to the satisfaction with the interior, the satisfaction with finishing materials was moderate in both Seoul (3.30 points) and New York (3.86), however, New York was a little higher. It is considered to be because the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York adopted more traditional elements for the finishing materials when designing, therefore, it can be inferred that the satisfaction will also increase in Seoul if more designs with the adoption of these traditional elements are added. The satisfaction with color was relatively higher in Seoul (3.66 points) and relatively lower in New York (3.18 points). Although the Korean restaurants in both Seoul and New York adopted the color design that puts points on the space with five cardinal colors, red and gold colors while using natural colors such as white, brown and gray, there was a difference in the satisfaction with colors of the customers in Seoul and New York, therefore, different color designs will need to be applied in Seoul and New York. As the satisfaction with furniture and decorating accessories were relatively low moderate in both Seoul (3.10 points) and New York (3.48 points), it is thought that the improvement to increase satisfaction is needed. Therefore, it is considered that the appropriacy of the size of the furniture, space and materials, etc. of the modern stand-up furniture used in the modernized upscale Korean restaurants are needed to be examined. 3) The satisfaction with the diversity of food was high in both Seoul and New York. However, the satisfaction with food setting in Seoul (3.95 points) appeared to be higher than New York (3.07 points), therefore, it can be inferred that the satisfaction with food setting in New York will be increased if the modern high-class Korean restaurants in New York also adopt the way of Seoul that combines Western food setting and the course-type service. 4) The satisfaction with the overall aspects in Seoul (the total space size: 3.99 points, private space size
3.90 points) was relatively higher than that in New York (the total space size: 3.46 points, private space size
3.28 points). It is considered that the satisfaction in Seoul that preferred a large scale was higher and the satisfaction in New York will also be increased if the space is designed as large as possible. However, as this requires an agreed point, it is recommended to increase the satisfaction of the private space size in the actually small space as well. For this, the methods making customers feel separation in the aspect of design such as the adoption of partitions. The satisfaction with interior and exterior in both Seoul (exterior: 3.63 points, interior: 3.40 points) and New York (exterior: 3.28 points, interior: 3.39 points) exceeded the average and therefore it is considered that the improvement to increase the satisfaction with this is urgent. 5) There was a notable difference in the satisfaction with environment between Seoul and New York. The modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul (2.91 points) that were not easily accessible showed a difference of more than one point as compared to those in New York (4.21) that are easily accessible, suggesting that the balance point is needed to be sought as the satisfaction with the commercial district that is not easily accessible becomes lower seven though it is good to be placed in a quiet place surrounded with a natural landscape. Taken as a whole, the total average satisfaction in Seoul (3.42 points) was slightly lower than that in New York (3.56 points), both in the level of not reaching 4 points. Therefore, it is considered that the plans for improvement to increase the overall satisfaction are needed. It is thought that this study will be a meaningful study in a sense that it conducted the study on the customer satisfaction based on the results of analyzing the characteristic of the interior spatial design for the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York that have emerged as a way of the globalization of Korean food, and it is also considered that the results of this study can be used as useful basic data when setting the interior spatial design guidelines for the modernized upscale Korean restaurants that advance into the world beyond Seoul and New York. Through the results of this study, it is expected that the modernized upscale Korean restaurants located in Seoul and New York will be renewed as the Korean restaurants with high customer satisfaction by planning the space that accords more with the characteristics of customer satisfaction in each area. However, it is somewhat regrettable that there are limitations to the generalization due to the limited number of samples. It is expected that in-depth studies with expanded samples can be conducted based on the results of this study, and it is hoped that follow-up studies on the various cities beyond New York where there are modernized upscale Korean restaurants will be conducted through more subdivided analysis frame.
Korean food is receiving attention from the people in the world as the food according with the wellbeing trends. The Korean Food Globalization Project which was set up with that trend has contributed to the emergence of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants, expanding the space of providing wellbeing beyond food. These restaurants emerged based on the high quality style by introducing the Western modern elements to Korea's unique traditional elements in line with the recent globalization trends, expanding their scope from Seoul, the capital of Korea, to the world including Asia and the United States In particular, a variety of efforts to globalize Korean food are being sought in Seoul, the capital of Korea and the starting point of the globalization of Korean food. In addition, New York where different ethnic races are living and leading culture is the place where the globalization of Korean food is being concentrated. under this background, this study investigated the modern high-class Korean restaurants that emerged as a way of the globalization of Korean food by selecting Seoul and New York where the Korean Food Globalization Project is being concentrated. This study analyzed the characteristics of customer satisfaction through the analysis for the characteristics of the interior space design of the modern high-level Korean restaurant and the satisfaction surveys for customers using these restaurants. Based on this, the space design and customer satisfaction with the modern high-class Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York were comparatively analyzed. For this study, a total of ten restaurants including five in New York and another five in Seoul were selected by limiting spatially to the modern high-class Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York that meet the condition of the modern restaurants through internet, related books and magazines and by limiting temporally to the modern high-class Korean restaurants that was opened or remodeled after 2008 when modern high-class restaurants began to appear. The characteristics of interior space design including general overview, characteristics of spatial configuration layout and characteristics of interior design were investigated for analysis by visiting these ten selected Korean restaurants and a survey was conducted by selecting 196 customers who use these Korean restaurants. As a result of processing the study results, a high reliability was obtained showing the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of average 0.895 for all questions, and the items of satisfaction characteristics were analyzed using Likert 5-point scale (1=very dissatisfied, 3=moderate, 5=very satisfied). In addition, customer satisfaction characteristics (customer characteristics, use characteristics, satisfaction characteristics) were analyzed for the frequency, percentage, mean, etc. by using the SPSS 18.0 statistical program. The mean between groups were comparatively analyzed by conducting the t-test and one-way ANOVA to investigate the parameter influencing satisfaction, and the differences between groups were verified through Duncan's test. It is expected that these results will be used as valuable resource important data for the presentation of design direction when designing the modern high-class Korean restaurants that will spread out through the world beyond Seoul and New York and for setting the direction of the spatial design and marketing that accords with customer demand. The results obtained in this study are as follows. First, as a result of comparatively analyzing the general overview of the modern high-class restaurants located in Seoul and New York, it appears that a modern high-class Korean restaurant was first built in New York in 2011 and then in Seoul in 2012. It is considered that the modern Korean restaurants that adopted Western elements were designed to suit the taste of foreigners in New York as the starting point. Although the modern Korean restaurants in New York are located in the commercial district with better accessibility as compared to those in Seoul, it was not limited to the large-scale restaurants. In addition, the Korean restaurants in New York were in the form of personal type franchise while those in Seoul was in the corporate form of independence type restaurants. It is considered that the network of the modern high-class Korean restaurants in New York is being developed as compared to that in Seoul. Each of the restaurant names in both Seoul and New York had its meaning derived from Hangul, the Korean language, and was written in Korean, Chinese and English. Therefore, it is thought that these trends need to be understood for the modern high-class Korean restaurants that will be opened in the future. Second, the results of comparatively analyzing the layout characteristics in the spatial configuration of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York by classifying them into spatial configuration elements and spatial layout characteristics are as follows. 1) The spatial configuration elements were classified into the reception, garden and rooms in Seoul and into the reception, bar hall and rooms in New York depending on the function of the interior space, showing the differences in the configuration elements of the garden and bar space. These differences are considered to be due to the cultural difference in the space to be brought in or created under the necessity, and these elements will need to be planned and designed in accordance with the target customers. 2) The spatial layout characteristics were analyzed by the percentage of the hall and rooms which are the space for dining out of the space classified depending on the spatial configuration elements. As a result, there was a difference between the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul that are mainly room-centered and those in New York that are all hall-centered. This difference is determined due to the characteristics designed to meet the demand of the customers in New York who prefer open space and the customers in Seoul who prefer private non-open space, and this will need to be considered when planning the space. Third, as a result of analyzing the characteristics of interior design of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York, the size of the space and furniture in the reception space of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York was designed to be smaller due to the simplification of the function. In addition, the Korean restaurants which are foreign restaurants in New York were representing the Korean atmosphere by decorating many Korean traditional elements at the reception space where customers are received for the first time when entering the restaurants. The modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York was giving consistency to the design in the hall space as compared to that in Seoul by installing the structure with the traditional elements designed as the motif on the ceiling finishing materials and by decorating interior decorative accessories associated with the restaurant name. The modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul put stress on the rooms as compared to those in New York, reflecting the culture of preferring private rooms and were using many traditional elements for the finishing materials and interior decorative accessories. Fourth, as a result of comparatively analyzing the customer characteristics of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York, the main customers of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in both Seoul and New York were all highly educated persons with a college diploma or higher and with an average monthly income of three million won, who spend more than six hundred thousand won per month on average for eating out. However, the main customers of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul were the women in their thirties and forties while those in New York were mainly men and women in their forties and fifties at the similar rate. In terms of the customer characteristics (of the customers who visited the restaurants during the period of the survey), the age group of the customers who visited the modernized upscale Korean restaurants located in New York was a little higher than that of Seoul, and it seems to be because the age group with economic the meal cost of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York is somewhat higher than other restaurants and the well-off age group uses the modernized upscale Korean restaurants. Therefore, it is desirable to target well-off people a little more as compared to Seoul when designing modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York, and it is thought that strategic marketing plans to make the Korean food appeal to the young people in New York. On the other hand, marketing activities accompanied by the high level design and service that can put the higher age group together will be needed in Seoul. Fifth, the results of comparatively analyzing the use characteristics of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants located in Seoul and New York by classifying into the preferred restaurants and Korean restaurants are as follows. 1) The customers in both Seoul and New York did not prefer the Korean restaurants as the space to visit when they need to stand on formality for the atmosphere or social intercourse. Thus, the need to enhance the image of the Korean restaurants is suggested, and it is considered that the improvement of the image is needed through upgrading Korean restaurants. 2) The customers in Seoul visited Korean restaurants with their friends or family for the purpose of socializing or business while the customers in New York visited Korean restaurants with their friends or colleagues for the purpose of socializing or work. These results were observed to be due to the high ratio of the customers who visit Korean restaurants to introduce Korean food to their friends or colleagues. Thus, the priority will need to put on the formal and luxurious designs suitable for the customers visiting Korean restaurants with their family and friends in the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul while the priority will need to be put on the comfortable and friendly design suitable for the customers to visit with their friends and colleagues in the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York in order to achieve the design that meets the purpose of the visit of the customers visiting the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York. Sixth, the results of analyzing the satisfaction characteristics of the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in Seoul and New York are as follows. 1) Satisfaction appeared to be in the order of the overall aspect, environment, interior and food in case of Seoul while it was in the order of the environment, overall aspect, interior and food in case of New York, showing that the satisfaction with interior and food was investigated to be relatively low in both Seoul and New York. Therefore, it was considered that the plans for improvement to increase the satisfaction in this part are needed. 2) As to the satisfaction with the interior, the satisfaction with finishing materials was moderate in both Seoul (3.30 points) and New York (3.86), however, New York was a little higher. It is considered to be because the modernized upscale Korean restaurants in New York adopted more traditional elements for the finishing materials when designing, therefore, it can be inferred that the satisfaction will also increase in Seoul if more designs with the adoption of these traditional elements are added. The satisfaction with color was relatively higher in Seoul (3.66 points) and relatively lower in New York (3.18 points). Although the Korean restaurants in both Seoul and New York adopted the color design that puts points on the space with five cardinal colors, red and gold colors while using natural colors such as white, brown and gray, there was a difference in the satisfaction with colors of the customers in Seoul and New York, therefore, different color designs will need to be applied in Seoul and New York. As the satisfaction with furniture and decorating accessories were relatively low moderate in both Seoul (3.10 points) and New York (3.48 points), it is thought that the improvement to increase satisfaction is needed. Therefore, it is considered that the appropriacy of the size of the furniture, space and materials, etc. of the modern stand-up furniture used in the modernized upscale Korean restaurants are needed to be examined. 3) The satisfaction with the diversity of food was high in both Seoul and New York. However, the satisfaction with food setting in Seoul (3.95 points) appeared to be higher than New York (3.07 points), therefore, it can be inferred that the satisfaction with food setting in New York will be increased if the modern high-class Korean restaurants in New York also adopt the way of Seoul that combines Western food setting and the course-type service. 4) The satisfaction with the overall aspects in Seoul (the total space size: 3.99 points, private space size
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GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > DEPARTMENT OF INTERIOR DESIGN(실내환경디자인학과) > Theses (Master)
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