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한반도 중서부 지방 신석기 시대 생계 주거 체계 연구

Title
한반도 중서부 지방 신석기 시대 생계 주거 체계 연구
Other Titles
A Study of Subsistence-Settlement System in Neolithic Central-Western Korea
Author
소상영
Alternative Author(s)
So, Sangyoung
Advisor(s)
배기동
Issue Date
2013-08
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
본 연구는 우리나라 중서부 지방 신석기시대 생계·주거 체계의 변동 과정을 고고학 자료, 고환경 연구와 민족지·역사적 자료의 종합적 분석을 통해 접근하는데 목적이 있다. 본고에서 생계·주거 체계 변동 과정에 해석은 환경의 변화에 대한 인간의 적응과 선택을 통한 자원의 최적화된 이용이라는 기능적 관점을 기본으로 하였다. 연구 대상 지역은 남한 지역을 주 대상으로 하였으며, (1) 경기 내륙 지역(임진강·한강 유역), (2) 경기 해안 및 도서 지역, (3) 충청 내륙 지역(금강 유역), (4) 충남 해안 및 도서 지역(전북 일부 포함) 등 4개의 소지역으로 구분하였다. Ⅲ장에서는 화분화석, 탄소동위원소, 해수면 변동에 대한 연구 결과를 검토하여 중서부 지방 신석기시대 자연 환경 변화를 분석하였다. 그 결과 중서부 지방에서 신석기집단의 활동이 본격화 되는 것은 7,000~6,000 BP경에 서해의 해수면이 급격한 상승을 멈추고 안정되어 갯벌이 형성되고, 강 하류 지형이 안정되는 시기와 관련된 것으로 파악되었다. 화분대는 4기로 구분되며 이중 화분대 CW-Ⅱ·Ⅲ기가 신석기시대의 환경과 관련이 깊다. 특히 CW-Ⅲ기의 기준이 되는 4,600 BP를 전후 한 시기부터 진행된 기후의 한랭·건조화 경향은 Ⅱ기에 신석기인의 활동 중심이 해안 및 도서 지역으로 이동하는 것과 깊은 관련이 있는 것으로 판단된다. Ⅳ장에서는 14C연대 측정치 분석 결과를 중심으로 중서부 신석기시대 편년안을 제시하였다. 필자는 14C연대 측정치 분석 결과에 따라 소지역별 단계를 설정하고 이를 유적의 입지 및 토기 문양의 변화와 종합하여 유적 및 유구의 상대 서열을 설정하여 편년하였다. 이에 따라 중서부 지방 신석기시대를 크게 Ⅰ기(3,600 calBC 이전)와 Ⅱ기(3,600 calBC이후)로 구분하였으며, Ⅱ기는 다시 전·중·후반으로 세분하였다. 이는 그 동안의 편년 연구가 발굴조사의 증가와 함께 축적된 다양한 고고학적 자료를 활용하지 못하고 여전히 토기 문양의 변화에 따른 형식학적 연구에 집중하는 현실에서 벗어나 대안을 찾기 위한 시도이다. Ⅴ·Ⅵ장에서는 생계·주거 체계의 변화를 직접적으로 반영하는 도구와 동·식물유체의 출토 양상(Ⅴ장), 취락의 구조와 공간 배치(Ⅵ장)의 변화상을 분석하여 이를 바탕으로 Ⅶ장에서 생계·주거 체계의 시기 및 소지역별 변화상을 분석하였다. Ⅰ기에는 내륙의 자연제방과 해안 및 도서 지역의 구릉에 대규모 취락이 입지한다. 주거지의 평면 형태는 원형 또는 방형으로 기둥은 4주식이 기본이다. 노지는 내륙에서는 위석식, 해안에서는 수혈식이 주로 설치된다. 해안 및 도서 지역에서는 주거지 내부에 단시설이 설치되는 경우도 많다. Ⅰ기는 대규모 취락의 존재와 높은 도구 다양성으로 볼 때 이전의 수렵 채집을 중심으로 하는 이동성이 높은 수렵채집사회에 어로와 초기농경이 생계 전략에 추가되어 정주성이 높은 수렵·채집사회가 형성되었음을 알 수 있다. Ⅱ기 전반에 내륙 지역에서는 취락의 규모가 축소되며, 입지는 큰 강 주변의 자연제방에서 지류 주변의 구릉으로 이동하는 양상을 보인다. 특히 충청 내륙에서는 대천리식주거지로 명명된 돌출된 입구를 가진 장방형 주거지 1~2기가 구릉상에 독립적으로 입지한다. 해안 및 도서 지역에서는 대규모 취락이 증가하고 밀집되는 양상을 보인다. 이와 같은 현상은 홍수 피해로 인한 자연제방 취락의 해체와 3,600 calBC 이후 기온의 한랭화 경향으로 인한 육상 자원 환경의 악화와 관련된 것으로 이해된다. 내륙 지역은 Ⅰ기부터 생계 전략에 추가된 초기농경이 전반적인 육상 생태계의 악화로 인해 자원을 효율적으로 활용하고 상대이익을 극대화하기 위한 주 생계 전략이 된 것으로 추정된다. 재배 작물은 조, 기장이 중심이 되며, 습기에 약한 조 기장의 생태적 특성으로 볼 때 주로 구릉 지역에서 재배되었을 것이다. 재배 방식은 화전과 같은 이동 농법을 사용했을 것이며 이에 따라 거주 이동에 필요한 비용을 줄이고 효율을 높이기 위해 집단의 규모를 작게 유지한 것으로 판단된다. 해안 및 도서 지역에서는 풍부한 해양자원(특히 어류)의 배타적 점유를 바탕으로 정주성이 높은 대규모 취락이 유지되지만 초기농경을 통한 식물성 식량자원도 생계 경제의 안정에 기여하였다. 주거지의 내부 구조는 4주식의 기둥에 수혈식 노지를 갖춘 정연한 구조를 보이며 재사용의 흔적은 보이지 않는다. 취락의 구성은 대부분 주거지만으로 구성된 단순한 구조를 보인다. 도구의 다양도는 Ⅰ기 보다 비교적 낮으며, 갈돌, 갈판과 같은 식물성 자원의 처리 도구가 주를 이루는 특징을 보인다. 이로 미루어 볼 때 Ⅱ기 전반에 해안 및 도서 지역에 입지한 취락에서는 식량의 처리와 소비가 주로 이루어졌으며, 자원은 주로 조달 이동을 통해 공급된 것을 알 수 있다. Ⅱ기 중반이 되면 해안 및 도서 지역 취락의 규모도 현저히 축소된다. 중산동(한강) 21, 23지점, 운북동 6지점과 같이 10기 이상의 주거지로 구성된 취락도 존재하지만, 전반적인 취락의 축소 경향은 뚜렷해진다. 중산동(한강)과 운북동의 경우도 Ⅱ기 전반의 취락 형태가 집촌형의 선상취락 또는 면상취락인 것과는 달리 산촌형의 괴상취락으로 변화한다. 주거지의 구조는 Ⅱ기 전반과 유사하지만 내부에 다수의 기둥이 무질서하게 배치되고 노지가 2~3차례 중복되어 반복적으로 재사용되었음을 알 수 있다. 도구의 다양도는 Ⅱ기 전반과 유사하거나 다소 높은 경향이 나타나지만, 주거지 내부에서 출토된 도구는 매우 빈약한 양상을 보인다. 이는 생계 전략의 중심이 조달 이동에서 거주 이동 중심으로 변화 하면서 정주성이 약화되는 현상을 반영하는 것이다. Ⅱ기 후반은 기존 편년의 말기에 해당하며 1,500~1,000 calBC는 청동기시대 조·전기와 겹쳐지는 전환기의 성격을 갖고 있다. 이 시기에 이르면 취락의 규모는 더욱 축소되고 야외노지가 증가한다. 1,500 calBC를 전후한 시기에 이르면 주거 유적은 거의 찾아 볼 수 없고, 일부 패총만이 잔존하는 양상을 보인다. 이는 Ⅱ기 중반부터 증가된 거주 이동으로 정주성이 낮아진 결과이다. 기온의 한랭화와 화전으로 인한 육상 생태계의 악화로 초기농경은 더 이상 주 생계 전략으로의 역할을 하지 못하게 된다. 이로 인해 내륙 집단은 더욱 빈번한 거주 이동을 통해 식량자원을 획득해야하는 상황에 처하게 되며, 그 결과로 집단의 규모는 더욱 축소되고 효율적인 이동을 위해 수혈 주거지와 같이 고고학 자료로 남겨질 수 있는 가시적인 구조물의 축조는 극히 제한된 것으로 보인다. 이와 같은 상황에서 도작농경을 주 생계 전략으로 하여 토지를 배타적 점유하는 청동기집단이 유입되면서 내륙 지역의 신석기사회는 빠르게 청동기 사회로 흡수되어 소멸된다. 이와는 달리 해안 및 도서 지역에서는 고남리B-3와 모이도 패총에서 출토된 동물유체와 도구 양상으로 볼 때 여전히 연중 거주를 바탕으로 한 집단이 도서 지역을 중심으로 활동했음을 보여준다. 해안 및 도서 지역의 신석기사회도 Ⅱ기 후반에 이르면 육상자원의 악화로 인해 해양자원에 대한 이용도가 더욱 집중되면서 집단은 축소되고 정주성은 약화되는 것으로 이해된다. 그럼에도 불구하고 여전히 해양자원을 중심으로 한 자원 집중처에 대해서는 배타적 점유권과 영역권을 유지하며 이를 바탕으로 내륙 지역을 중심으로 빠르게 확산되는 도작농경 집단과 거주 영역을 달리하며 청동기시대 전기 후반(1,000 calBC 전후)까지 공존한 것으로 판단된다. |This study was prepared for the purpose of revealing the change of the subsistence-settlement system in Neolithic Central-Western Korea. In this thesis, the underlying principle of interpreting changes in subsistence-settlement system is the functional point of view that human adaptation to a changing environment and the optimal use of resources in a selective way. The study examined South Korean regions by classifying them into 4 sub-regions of (1) inland Gyeonggi areas (Imjin River and Han River basin), (2) coastal and island Gyeonggi areas, (3) inland Chungcheong areas (Geum River basin), and (4) coastal and island Chungnam area (including part of Jeonbuk areas). Chapter III looks into research results on pollen analysis, carbon isotopes, and sea level change to find out Neolithic natural environmental changes. As a result, the activities of the Neolithic people in the Central-Western regions launched during 7,000~6,000 BP when the Yellow sea level stopped surging and stabilized to form a tidal flat and stable geographical features of downstream areas. Pollen zones are divided into 4 phases. Of them the pollen zone CW-II/III are deeply related to the Neolithic environment. Especially, the starting point of CW-II around 4,600 BP when the temperature coldness began seems to be closely related to the fact that Neolithic people activities moved to coastal and island areas during the Central-Wenstern Phase II. Chapter IV presented the chronological recording of the Neolithic, centering on the 14C-dating analysis outcomes. I followed this 14C-dating analysis results to set sub-regional phases and recorded chronologically the remains and architectural traces by setting their relative priority in comprehensive consideration of the remains' location and earthenware's pattern changes. Accordingly, the Neolithic period of the central-western region was divided into Phase I (pre-3,600 calBC) and Phase II (post-3,600 calBC). And the Phase II was further divided into three sub-phases of first, second and third terms. This is part of efforts to find an alternative by overcoming the existing researches focusing solely on the formalities according to earthenware pattern changes while failing to make the the diverse archeological data. Chapter V analysis of tool composition, the diversity of each tool and animal and plan bodies. Chapter VI looked at the changes in settlement structure and spatial composition. Based on this, Chapter VII presents overall explanation of the changes in subsistent-settlement systems in terms of each phase and sub-region. In the Phase I, the large-scale settlements are located in inland natural bank areas as well as coastal and island hill areas. The plain structure of the pit-house is circular or square-shaped with basically 4 pillars holes an a hearth. In this Phase, given the existence of large-scale settlement and high diversity of tool, people seemed to start new strategies for living such as fishing and plant cultivation in addition to the existing ways of hunting and gathering that made them move frequently. With these new methods of livelihood, people became able to stay longer in a certain place. Throughout the Early Phase II, the settlement size was reduced in the inland areas. Settlements moved from the natural banks around large river basins to river branch hill areas. In the inland Chungcheong hill area, in particular, 1~2 units of independent rectangular settlements called as Daecheonri-style pit-house appeared with a projecting entrance. Coastal and island areas saw increasing and more densely located large settlements. Such a phenomenon is deemed to be related to the aggravated land resource status due to the temperature coldness after 3,600 calBC along with flood damages that disbanded settlements around natural banks. Inland areas seem to become the main source of food in the Phase I as people started to plant cultivation and general natural environment became more unfavorable for living. Given the plants excavated from the sites, millets and prosos were mainly grown. And since millets and prosos are vulnerable to humidity, hills were main areas of cultivating. Shifting cultivation such as slash-and-burn farming seemed most frequent. Therefore, to reduce the cost of moving and improve cultivating effectiveness, people tended to keep the settlement size smaller. In the coastal and island areas, large-scale settlements were maintained for a longer term based on the exclusive use of abundant marine resources. And similar to the inland areas, plant cultivation is deemed to play an important role in producing vegetable food resources. The inside of the settlement was structured with 4 pillars holes and organized with pit-hearth. No sign in re-use was found. The settlement is a simple structure of pit-houses solely. Tool diversity was lower than that in the Phase I. Plant resource dealing tools such as grinding and pounding stone were mainly discovered. In this sense, in the Early Phase II, coastal and island settlements mostly dealt with and consumed food and food seemed to be provided mainly through procurement. In the Mid Phase II, coastal and inland settlement started to grow rapidly smaller. Although some settlement comprising more than 10 houses existed such as 21 and 23 sites in Jungsan-dong and 6 sites in Wunbbok-dong, settlements became conspicuously smaller. Plain structure of the pit-house was similar to that of the Early Phase II but multiple pillars holes were located inside in a disorganized manner. And the hearths overlapped 2~3 times, indicating repeated use. Tool diversity is similar or slightly higher than the Early Phase II but tools excavated in the inside of the pit-house are very poor. Considering all these, settlement term in this period seems to become much shorter, implying logistical mobility shifted to residential mobility in securing resources. The Late Phase II is the end of the existing chronological recording. 1,500~1,000 calBC is a transitional period overlapping with the early bronze age. During this period, settlement grew further smaller while open hearths increased. Around 1,500 calBC, settlement sites are hardly found and some shelmiddens are discovered around the coastal and island areas. This seems the result of shorter settlement term started from the Mid Phase II and frequent residential movement. As temperature coldness and slash-and-burn cultivating aggravated land environment for living, plant cultivating failed to support livelihood any longer. This forced inland settlements to move more frequently in search of food, further reducing the settlement size and leaving almost no remains of visible structures with archeological values. In this situation, Bronze Age groups migrated who used land exclusively for rice cultivation and inland Neolithic culture disappeared while being rapidly absorbed into the Bonze a Age Society as it is explained. However, the animal bodies and tools excavated from Gonam-ri B-3 and Moido shellmiddens indicate that there still were settlements staying in the coastal and island areas for the year round. The Neolitic Societies in the coastal and island areas also grew smaller and stayed for a shorter period as they faced fewer land resources and relied more on marine resources in the Late Phase II. Still the possibility remains high that settlements maintained exclusive occupation of areas with intensive marine resources. These settlements seem to co-exist until the later part of the Early Bonze Age (around 1,000 calBC) based on this livelihood in separation of the rice-farming groups which rapidly penetrated centering on inland areas.; This study was prepared for the purpose of revealing the change of the subsistence-settlement system in Neolithic Central-Western Korea. In this thesis, the underlying principle of interpreting changes in subsistence-settlement system is the functional point of view that human adaptation to a changing environment and the optimal use of resources in a selective way. The study examined South Korean regions by classifying them into 4 sub-regions of (1) inland Gyeonggi areas (Imjin River and Han River basin), (2) coastal and island Gyeonggi areas, (3) inland Chungcheong areas (Geum River basin), and (4) coastal and island Chungnam area (including part of Jeonbuk areas). Chapter III looks into research results on pollen analysis, carbon isotopes, and sea level change to find out Neolithic natural environmental changes. As a result, the activities of the Neolithic people in the Central-Western regions launched during 7,000~6,000 BP when the Yellow sea level stopped surging and stabilized to form a tidal flat and stable geographical features of downstream areas. Pollen zones are divided into 4 phases. Of them the pollen zone CW-II/III are deeply related to the Neolithic environment. Especially, the starting point of CW-II around 4,600 BP when the temperature coldness began seems to be closely related to the fact that Neolithic people activities moved to coastal and island areas during the Central-Wenstern Phase II. Chapter IV presented the chronological recording of the Neolithic, centering on the 14C-dating analysis outcomes. I followed this 14C-dating analysis results to set sub-regional phases and recorded chronologically the remains and architectural traces by setting their relative priority in comprehensive consideration of the remains' location and earthenware's pattern changes. Accordingly, the Neolithic period of the central-western region was divided into Phase I (pre-3,600 calBC) and Phase II (post-3,600 calBC). And the Phase II was further divided into three sub-phases of first, second and third terms. This is part of efforts to find an alternative by overcoming the existing researches focusing solely on the formalities according to earthenware pattern changes while failing to make the the diverse archeological data. Chapter V analysis of tool composition, the diversity of each tool and animal and plan bodies. Chapter VI looked at the changes in settlement structure and spatial composition. Based on this, Chapter VII presents overall explanation of the changes in subsistent-settlement systems in terms of each phase and sub-region. In the Phase I, the large-scale settlements are located in inland natural bank areas as well as coastal and island hill areas. The plain structure of the pit-house is circular or square-shaped with basically 4 pillars holes an a hearth. In this Phase, given the existence of large-scale settlement and high diversity of tool, people seemed to start new strategies for living such as fishing and plant cultivation in addition to the existing ways of hunting and gathering that made them move frequently. With these new methods of livelihood, people became able to stay longer in a certain place. Throughout the Early Phase II, the settlement size was reduced in the inland areas. Settlements moved from the natural banks around large river basins to river branch hill areas. In the inland Chungcheong hill area, in particular, 1~2 units of independent rectangular settlements called as Daecheonri-style pit-house appeared with a projecting entrance. Coastal and island areas saw increasing and more densely located large settlements. Such a phenomenon is deemed to be related to the aggravated land resource status due to the temperature coldness after 3,600 calBC along with flood damages that disbanded settlements around natural banks. Inland areas seem to become the main source of food in the Phase I as people started to plant cultivation and general natural environment became more unfavorable for living. Given the plants excavated from the sites, millets and prosos were mainly grown. And since millets and prosos are vulnerable to humidity, hills were main areas of cultivating. Shifting cultivation such as slash-and-burn farming seemed most frequent. Therefore, to reduce the cost of moving and improve cultivating effectiveness, people tended to keep the settlement size smaller. In the coastal and island areas, large-scale settlements were maintained for a longer term based on the exclusive use of abundant marine resources. And similar to the inland areas, plant cultivation is deemed to play an important role in producing vegetable food resources. The inside of the settlement was structured with 4 pillars holes and organized with pit-hearth. No sign in re-use was found. The settlement is a simple structure of pit-houses solely. Tool diversity was lower than that in the Phase I. Plant resource dealing tools such as grinding and pounding stone were mainly discovered. In this sense, in the Early Phase II, coastal and island settlements mostly dealt with and consumed food and food seemed to be provided mainly through procurement. In the Mid Phase II, coastal and inland settlement started to grow rapidly smaller. Although some settlement comprising more than 10 houses existed such as 21 and 23 sites in Jungsan-dong and 6 sites in Wunbbok-dong, settlements became conspicuously smaller. Plain structure of the pit-house was similar to that of the Early Phase II but multiple pillars holes were located inside in a disorganized manner. And the hearths overlapped 2~3 times, indicating repeated use. Tool diversity is similar or slightly higher than the Early Phase II but tools excavated in the inside of the pit-house are very poor. Considering all these, settlement term in this period seems to become much shorter, implying logistical mobility shifted to residential mobility in securing resources. The Late Phase II is the end of the existing chronological recording. 1,500~1,000 calBC is a transitional period overlapping with the early bronze age. During this period, settlement grew further smaller while open hearths increased. Around 1,500 calBC, settlement sites are hardly found and some shelmiddens are discovered around the coastal and island areas. This seems the result of shorter settlement term started from the Mid Phase II and frequent residential movement. As temperature coldness and slash-and-burn cultivating aggravated land environment for living, plant cultivating failed to support livelihood any longer. This forced inland settlements to move more frequently in search of food, further reducing the settlement size and leaving almost no remains of visible structures with archeological values. In this situation, Bronze Age groups migrated who used land exclusively for rice cultivation and inland Neolithic culture disappeared while being rapidly absorbed into the Bonze a Age Society as it is explained. However, the animal bodies and tools excavated from Gonam-ri B-3 and Moido shellmiddens indicate that there still were settlements staying in the coastal and island areas for the year round. The Neolitic Societies in the coastal and island areas also grew smaller and stayed for a shorter period as they faced fewer land resources and relied more on marine resources in the Late Phase II. Still the possibility remains high that settlements maintained exclusive occupation of areas with intensive marine resources. These settlements seem to co-exist until the later part of the Early Bonze Age (around 1,000 calBC) based on this livelihood in separation of the rice-farming groups which rapidly penetrated centering on inland areas.
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https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/132549http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000423026
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GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY(문화인류학과) > Theses (Ph.D.)
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