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언어별 불안과 학습 동기에 대한 연구

Title
언어별 불안과 학습 동기에 대한 연구
Other Titles
Foreign Language Anxiety and Motivation of Korean Learners of English, Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and French
Author
김세원
Alternative Author(s)
Kim, Sae Won
Advisor(s)
김성연
Issue Date
2014-02
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Master
Abstract
국문 요지 본 연구는 영어, 일본어, 중국어, 러시아어, 아랍어, 그리고 프랑스어의 6개의 외국어 별로 학습 불안과 학습 동기를 비교, 조사하고자 한다. 이를 바탕으로 다양한 외국어 학습자들을 이해하여 외국어 학습에 더 나은 방향을 제시하고자 하였다. 본 연구의 목적을 위해 서울에 소재한 중, 상위권 대학 세 곳에서 6개의 다른 외국어 학습자 총 254명을 대상으로 설문조사를 실시하여 그 결과를 SPSS Statistics 21 프로그램을 사용해서 통계를 분석하였다. 또한 설문 조사로는 부족할 수도 있는 질적 자료를 보충하기 위하여 6개의 외국어마다 각각 한 명씩의 학습자를 선정하여 심층 인터뷰를 진행하였다. 본 연구의 주된 결과를 요약하면 아래와 같다. 첫 째, 외국어 학습 불안에 대해 조사한 결과 모든 외국어 학습자들이 수업시간에 즉석에서 발표를 할 때 불안을 느끼는 것으로 나타났다. 외국어 별로 비교를 할 경우, 영어와 일본어는 학습자들이 느끼는 친숙도가 다른 언어들 보다 높기 때문에 비교적 낮은 수준의 불안이 측정되었다. 중국어의 경우에도 교실 수업 중 불안은 높지 않았지만, 많은 양의 한자, 성조, 그리고 지역적 방언의 차이로 인해 학습자들의 걱정이 높게 측정되었다. 러시아어와 아랍어의 경우는 학습 관련 콘텐츠의 부족으로 인해, 그리고 프랑스어의 경우 문법 체계의 난이도로 인해 외국어 학습자들의 불안이 비교적 높게 측정되었다. 하지만 외국어 별로 근소한 학습 불안의 차이가 통계적으로 유의미하지는 않았는데, 이것은 모든 외국어를 배울 때에는 어느 정도의 불안이 잠재한다는 사실을 입증한다고 볼 수 있다. 이러한 연구 결과를 통하여 Horwitz, E.K., Horwitz, M.B.와 Cope, J.A.(1986)가 주장한 외국어 학습 상황에 고유한 불안의 존재를 다시 한 번 확인할 수 있었다. 둘 째, 외국어 학습 동기에 대해 조사한 결과 세 가지의 동기 요인 중 도구적 동기가 외국어 별로 통계적으로 유의미한 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 도구적 동기의 대상 외국어 별 5점 척도평균이 영어가 ‘4’로 가장 높게 나타났는데, 이를 통해 영어가 여전히 취업, 승진 등을 하는 도구로써의 가치가 높은 것을 알 수 있다. 반면, 국내에서 점차 영향력을 잃어가고 있는 프랑스어의 경우에는 도구적 동기의 대상 외국어별 5점 척도평균이 ‘3.4’로 가장 낮았는데, 이러한 연구 결과를 통하여 해당 외국어가 가지고 있는 사회적인 위상이나 실용적인 가치에 따라서 학습자들의 동기 또한 달라질 수 있다는 점을 확인하였다. 셋 째, 외국어 학습 불안의 세 가지 요인인 교실 수업 중 불안, 자신감, 그리고 걱정과 외국어 학습 동기의 세 가지 요인인 내재적 동기, 사회 자아 인식 동기, 그리고 도구적 동기의 상관관계를 분석한 결과, 내재적 동기 요인이 외국어 학습 불안의 세 가지 요인들과 모두 관련이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 내재적 동기 요인은 교실 수업 중 불안과 걱정 요인과는 부적 상관관계가 나타났고, 자신감 요인과는 정적 상관관계를 보였다. 이러한 결과는 다중 회귀분석의 결과와도 일치하였는데, 내재적 동기 요인이 외국어 학습 불안을 가장 잘 예측할 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 내재적 동기 요인이 외국어 학습 불안 요인의 예측 변인이고, 이를 통해 외국어 교실 현장에서 학습자들의 불안을 줄이기 위해서는 이러한 내재적 동기를 활성화시키기 위한 교사들의 역할이 중요하다고 볼 수 있다. 넷 째, 외국어 학습 불안 유발 요인을 조사한 결과, 영어는 ‘문법’, ‘유창성’, 그리고 ‘모국어와 제 2언어의 차이’와 같은 다양한 요인들로 인해 학습자들이 불안을 느끼는 것으로 나타났다. 일본어와 중국어의 경우 ‘어려운 한자’, 그리고 러시아어와 프랑스어는 ‘문법’이 학습자들로 하여금 가장 불안을 일으키는 요인으로 나타났다. 마지막으로 아랍어는 많은 학습자들이‘콘텐츠 부족’으로 인해 가장 불안을 느끼는 것으로 조사되었다. 또한 외국어 학습 동기 유발 요인을 조사한 결과 영어, 일본어, 그리고 중국어 학습자들은 주로 도구적 동기와 내재적 동기로 인해 대상 외국어를 전공으로 선택한 것을 알 수 있다. 러시아어와 아랍어의 경우는 해당 외국어가 희소성이 높기 때문에 학습자들이 전공으로 가장 많이 선택한 것으로 나타났는데 반해, 프랑스어는 ‘성적에 맞춰 진학하였다.’는 학습자들의 답변이 가장 많았기 때문에 프랑스어의 경우 자신의 의지와는 상관없이 전공으로 선택한 경우도 흔히 있음을 알 수 있다. 위의 연구 결과를 바탕으로 연구자는 다음과 같은 제언을 한다. 첫 째, 외국어 학습 불안을 줄이기 위하여 짝 활동, 모둠 활동, 그리고 전체 활동의 순서로 과업을 진행하거나, 과업 자체를 과제로 부여하는 등의 방식을 통해 학습자들이 충분히 연습할 수 있는 환경을 제공하여 즉석에서 발표를 하게 하지 않는 것이 중요하다. 무엇보다도 교사와 학습자 사이에 효율적이고 지속적인 소통을 전제로 외국어 학습 불안을 점차적으로 줄여 나가야 할 것이다. 둘 째, 외국어 교실 현장에서는 내재적 동기를 활성화키기 위한 교사들의 역할이 중요하다. 내재적 동기를 유발하는 교수 전략에는 학습 내용을 학습자들의 실생활과 관련이 있는 주제로 선정한다거나, 주제를 선정할 수 있는 권한 자체를 학습자들에게 부여하는 방법이 있다. 또한 학습자가 자기 주도적인 방식으로 학습하도록 안내하고, 교사들의 발화 비율을 낮춰 학습자들이 더 많이 말할 수 있도록 하는 등 학습자 위주의 교수환경을 만들어 준다면 보다 유의미한 외국어 학습이 가능하여 내재적 동기 또한 높아질 것으로 예상한다. 셋 째, 러시아어와 아랍어 능력에 대한 수요가 국내, 외에서 점차적으로 늘어나고 있다. 그렇기 때문에, 이러한 외국어 학습자의 경우에도 그들의 내재적 동기를 활성화 시킬 수 있도록 다양한 학습 콘텐츠의 개발과 교수, 학습 환경의 처우 개선 등을 통해 해당 언어에 대한 친숙도를 높일 수 있는 방안을 마련하는 것이 시급하다고 본다. |Abstract Foreign Language Anxiety and Motivation of Korean Learners of English, Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and French Kim, Sae Won Dept. of English Education The Graduate School of Education Hanyang University With understanding various kinds of foreign language learners, better ways of foreign language learning can be suggested. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare foreign language anxiety and motivation of learners of six languages: English, Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Arabic, and French. To collect the data for this study, questionnaire surveys were taken to 254 students of six different languages at three different universities located in Seoul. The results of the study were statistically analyzed by SPSS statistics 21 program. Also, to complement the result of the survey, in-depth interviews were carried out with six learners of six different languages. The primary findings of this study can be summarized as follows. First, all learners of six languages felt anxiety mostly when they were speaking on the spot, and in front of the class. When compared each six languages, the learners of English and Japanese felt relatively low anxieties because they felt higher familiarity than other languages. In case of the Chinese learners, they considered large numbers of difficult Chinese characters and Chinese intonation as most anxiety-provoking factors. Learners of Russian and Arabic chose the lack of learning contents, and learners of French selected high levels of grammar as most anxiety-provoking factors. However, the gap among the six foreign language anxieties were not statistically meaningful. This result implies that there exist anxieties which are specific to foreign language learning, and it was confirmed again what the E. K. Horwitz, M. B. Horwitz, and Cope(1986) has proved. Second, among three factors of foreign language motivation, performance goal β(Functional) has shown statistically meaningful differences. The mean of five-point likert scale of English of performance goal β was ‘4’, which is the highest. Through this, it seems that the importance of English for employment, entrance, and promotion remains the same as before. On the other hand, the mean of French was only ‘3.4’, which is the lowest, because French has depreciated in value in Korea. From this result, that the motivations of learners can be varied by the social status or utilitarian values of languages has been confirmed. Third, the result of multiple regression shows that the mastery goal factor can anticipate the foreign language anxiety. Therefore, mastery goal can be considered as predictor variable of foreign language anxiety, and the teachers’ role to activate mastery goal motivation of learners in classroom field seems highly critical to reduce foreign language anxiety. Fourth, learners of English felt anxiety due to various factors, such as grammar, fluency, and the gap between native and second language. In case of the learners of Japanese and Chinese, large numbers of Chinese characters were the best anxiety provoking factors. Russian and French learners chose grammar, and Arabic learners selected the lack of learning contents as the best anxiety provoking factors. The results of survey of motivation factor show that the performance goal β and mastery goal are the best motivators to enter the university to the learners of English, Japanese, and Chinese. In case of Russian and Arabic learners, the scarcity of the language was the most chosen factor. In contrast, French learners showed their tendency to enter the university with consideration for KSAT grade most. It seems that entrance to the university regardless of one’s will happens commonly to the French learners. In accordance with the preceding results of this study, some suggestions can be proposed to understand foreign language anxiety and motivation of learners. First, to reduce foreign language anxiety, it is important to assign tasks as pair work, group activity, all activity or form of homework so that the learners can practice sufficiently before speaking. Above all things, continuous and efficient communication between teachers and learners should be premised to reduce foreign language anxiety. Second, since mastery goal has been proved as predictor variable, it is important to motivate mastery goal of the learners in classroom field by using some teaching strategy, such as choosing learning contents regarding practical life of learners. Otherwise, empowering the selection of learning contents to the learners is also avaliable. Besides, leading learners to do self-directed learning, or reducing teacher talk so that the students can have chance to speak more than before can foster meaningful foreign language learning. In these ways, mastery goal can be motivated. Third, in case of Russian and Arabic, learners have difficulty due to lack of relevant contents. This familiarity factor may lower the mastery goal of learners. Thus, to make Russian and Arabic familiar to the learners, it is urgent to develop a variety of learning contents, and improve teaching-learning environments of Russian and Arabic.; Abstract Foreign Language Anxiety and Motivation of Korean Learners of English, Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and French Kim, Sae Won Dept. of English Education The Graduate School of Education Hanyang University With understanding various kinds of foreign language learners, better ways of foreign language learning can be suggested. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare foreign language anxiety and motivation of learners of six languages: English, Japanese, Chinese, Russian, Arabic, and French. To collect the data for this study, questionnaire surveys were taken to 254 students of six different languages at three different universities located in Seoul. The results of the study were statistically analyzed by SPSS statistics 21 program. Also, to complement the result of the survey, in-depth interviews were carried out with six learners of six different languages. The primary findings of this study can be summarized as follows. First, all learners of six languages felt anxiety mostly when they were speaking on the spot, and in front of the class. When compared each six languages, the learners of English and Japanese felt relatively low anxieties because they felt higher familiarity than other languages. In case of the Chinese learners, they considered large numbers of difficult Chinese characters and Chinese intonation as most anxiety-provoking factors. Learners of Russian and Arabic chose the lack of learning contents, and learners of French selected high levels of grammar as most anxiety-provoking factors. However, the gap among the six foreign language anxieties were not statistically meaningful. This result implies that there exist anxieties which are specific to foreign language learning, and it was confirmed again what the E. K. Horwitz, M. B. Horwitz, and Cope(1986) has proved. Second, among three factors of foreign language motivation, performance goal β(Functional) has shown statistically meaningful differences. The mean of five-point likert scale of English of performance goal β was ‘4’, which is the highest. Through this, it seems that the importance of English for employment, entrance, and promotion remains the same as before. On the other hand, the mean of French was only ‘3.4’, which is the lowest, because French has depreciated in value in Korea. From this result, that the motivations of learners can be varied by the social status or utilitarian values of languages has been confirmed. Third, the result of multiple regression shows that the mastery goal factor can anticipate the foreign language anxiety. Therefore, mastery goal can be considered as predictor variable of foreign language anxiety, and the teachers’ role to activate mastery goal motivation of learners in classroom field seems highly critical to reduce foreign language anxiety. Fourth, learners of English felt anxiety due to various factors, such as grammar, fluency, and the gap between native and second language. In case of the learners of Japanese and Chinese, large numbers of Chinese characters were the best anxiety provoking factors. Russian and French learners chose grammar, and Arabic learners selected the lack of learning contents as the best anxiety provoking factors. The results of survey of motivation factor show that the performance goal β and mastery goal are the best motivators to enter the university to the learners of English, Japanese, and Chinese. In case of Russian and Arabic learners, the scarcity of the language was the most chosen factor. In contrast, French learners showed their tendency to enter the university with consideration for KSAT grade most. It seems that entrance to the university regardless of one’s will happens commonly to the French learners. In accordance with the preceding results of this study, some suggestions can be proposed to understand foreign language anxiety and motivation of learners. First, to reduce foreign language anxiety, it is important to assign tasks as pair work, group activity, all activity or form of homework so that the learners can practice sufficiently before speaking. Above all things, continuous and efficient communication between teachers and learners should be premised to reduce foreign language anxiety. Second, since mastery goal has been proved as predictor variable, it is important to motivate mastery goal of the learners in classroom field by using some teaching strategy, such as choosing learning contents regarding practical life of learners. Otherwise, empowering the selection of learning contents to the learners is also avaliable. Besides, leading learners to do self-directed learning, or reducing teacher talk so that the students can have chance to speak more than before can foster meaningful foreign language learning. In these ways, mastery goal can be motivated. Third, in case of Russian and Arabic, learners have difficulty due to lack of relevant contents. This familiarity factor may lower the mastery goal of learners. Thus, to make Russian and Arabic familiar to the learners, it is urgent to develop a variety of learning contents, and improve teaching-learning environments of Russian and Arabic.
URI
https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/131851http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000423974
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GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION[S](교육대학원) > MAJOR IN ENGLISH EDUCATION(영어교육전공) > Theses(Master)
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