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한국 중학교 학생들의 영어 듣기 전략 및 듣기 성취도와 과업 선호도

Title
한국 중학교 학생들의 영어 듣기 전략 및 듣기 성취도와 과업 선호도
Other Titles
Korean Middle School Students’ Strategy and Achievement in English Listening and Preferences for Listening Task
Author
김은이
Alternative Author(s)
Kim, Eun Yi
Advisor(s)
김성연
Issue Date
2014-08
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 연구는 중학교 학생들의 듣기 전략 사용, 듣기 성취도, 듣기 과업 유형 선호도를 조사하여 이들이 서로에게 미치는 영향을 분석하고 듣기 수업에 대한 학습자의 인식도 알아보고자 한다. 이는 수준별 학습자의 듣기 전략과 듣기 과업별 선호도에 대한 이해를 바탕으로 성공적인 영어 듣기 학습을 유도시킬 수 있는 방향을 제시하기 위한 것이다. 본 연구의 목적 달성을 위해 경기도에 소재한 N중학교 2학년 학생 260명을 대상으로 설문조사를 한 후, 그 결과를 SPSS 통계 프로그램을 사용하여 분석하였다. 질적 자료 보충을 위해 듣기 능력별로 각 3명씩을 선정하여 총 9명을 대상으로 심층 인터뷰를 진행하였다. 본 연구의 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 학습자들의 듣기 전략 사용 양상 조사 결과, 보상 전략을 가장 많이 사용하였고 상위인지 전략을 가장 적게 사용하였다. 학습자가 듣기 내용을 이해하지 못할 때, 주변의 단서로 내용을 추측하고 문제를 해결하려는 경향이 있는 반면, 영어 듣기를 한 후 문제점을 진단하고 자신의 이해 정도를 평가하는 과정은 상대적으로 부족하여 이에 대한 훈련이 필요하다. 듣기 능력별로 듣기 전략 사용을 조사한 결과, 상위 학습자가 하위 학습자보다 모든 듣기 전략을 많이 사용하였다. 또한 듣기를 할 때 하위 집단이 단어에만 집중하는 것과 달리 상위 집단에서는 배경지식을 활용하는 것에 능숙하였다. 듣기능력 수준별 비교에서 기억, 인지, 보상, 정의적 전략의 경우 모든 수준별 집단 간의 평균값 차이가 유의하였다. 반면, 상위인지 전략은 상-중, 중-하 수준 간의 평균값 차이가, 사회적 전략은 상-중간의 평균값 차이가 유의하지 않았다. 학습자의 듣기과업 선호도 조사 결과, 가장 선호도가 높은 유형은 난이도가 쉬운 ‘묘사한 인물에 해당하는 그림 고르기’였다. 반면, 선호도 낮은 과업 유형은 ‘그래프나 도표의 빈칸 완성하기’와 ‘줄거리 요약하기’였다. 이는 학습자에게 복잡한 이해처리 과정과 상당한 듣기 실력을 요구하기 때문이다. 또한, 전형적으로 시험에 출제되는 특정 과업 유형에 대한 친밀감 차이에서 비롯된 도구적 동기가 학습자의 과업 선호도 선택에 영향을 주었을 가능성이 있다. 이 외에도 듣기 전략, 듣기 과업별 선호도, 듣기 성취도, 영어성적의 관계를 상관분석을 통해 알아보았다. 듣기 성취도와 영어 성적, 듣기 전략 사용은 밀접한 연관이 있었다. 높은 상관계수 값이 나온 것은 인지, 기억전략 이었고 사회적, 상위인지 전략이 낮았다. 이것은 인지 또는 기억 전략을 집중적으로 훈련할 경우, 듣기 성취도와 영어성적을 향상시킬 수 있는 가능성이 다른 전략들에 비해 높음을 시사한다. 과업 선호도와의 상관관계 분석 결과, ‘줄거리 파악하기’, ‘주제나 요지 파악하기’, ‘의도나 목적 파악하기’, ‘구체적 정보 파악하기’ ‘사건의 원인과 결과 파악하기’ 과업이 듣기 성취도 및 영어성적과 유의한 정적 상관관계가 있었다. 한편, 듣기 성취도를 잘 예측하는 요인은 기억과 인지 전략으로, 듣기이해 처리 과정 중 학습자가 언어적 입력을 효과적으로 기억하고 정보를 인지적으로 처리하기 위해 이런 전략들을 사용한다. 영어 성적을 잘 예측하는 변인은 기억, 인지, 상위인지 전략으로 듣기 성취도를 예측하는 전략 변인과 차이가 있었다. 즉, 영어 듣기와 영어 능력은 다른 이해 처리 과정임을 보여준다. 듣기 성취도와 영어성적을 과업 선호도별로 다중회귀 분석한 결과 ‘주제나 요지 파악하기’, ‘구체적 정보 파악하기’ 과업을 선호하는 학습자가 듣기 성취도와 영어성적 모두가 높았다. 마지막으로, 학습자들의 듣기 수업 인식 조사 결과, 학습자들은 듣기가 중요하지만 영어의 핵심 기능이라고는 인식하지 않았다. 또한 영어듣기 능력에 필요한 요소들을 배우고 싶어 했지만 특별한 노력은 없었고 듣기 자료에 대해서도 관심이 없었다. 이는 듣기 수업이 흥미롭지 않으며 듣기 능력 향상에 별로 도움이 되지 않는다고 생각하기 때문이라고 시사된다. 흥미로운 듣기활동을 위해 교사가 진정성 있는 듣기 자료를 수업에 적극 활용하는 것이 요구된다. 듣기 학습이 효과적으로 이루어 질 수 있도록 다음과 같이 제언을 한다. 교사나 교재 개발자는 한 쪽 전략에 편중되지 않게 듣기 전략 지도 방법을 연구하고 개발해야 할 것이다. 본 연구 대상에게 부족한 상위인지 전략 활성화를 위해 듣기 전 또는 듣기 후에 5분 정도 듣기의 어려움 및 불안 요소를 적는 체크 리스트나 학습일지를 작성할 수 있다. 또는 듣기 교재 마무리 단계에서 듣기 성취도에 대한 또래 집단 간의 간략한 평가를 도입해 사회적 전략도 함께 활성화시킬 수 있다. 이런 피드백을 바탕으로 학습자는 다시 학습 계획과 목표를 세우게 되어 상위인지 전략으로 연결시킬 수 있다. 또한 교과서 과업을 선정하고 구성하는 과정에서 학습자 요구를 반영하고 듣기 활동을 제작, 선정할 때에는 듣기 능력별로 체계적인 난이도 조절이 고려되어야 한다. 실질적으로 과업 주제를 택할 때 학교, 교육위원회, 교사들이 팀을 이루어 선정할 수도 있으며, 학습자 스스로 주제를 선정하고 교사와의 논의를 통해서 주제의 범위를 세부화 시킬 수도 있다. 또한 성적, 인종적, 사회적 배경과 상관없이 모든 학생들에게 일반적인 경험을 바탕으로 듣기 주제를 선정해야 한다.| This study examined Korean middle school students' English listening strategies, achievement in English listening and preferences in types of listening tasks. The study also investigated the relationship between them and inquired about the perceptions of English listening lessons. Its goal is to propose a better guidance to listening lessons by understanding learners from different levels of ability. The survey was conducted with 260 second grade students in Middle School and the results were analyzed using SPSS statistics program. Supplementary interviews were also conducted on students from different levels of achievement in English listening. The findings indicated that the most frequently used listening strategy appeared to be compensation strategy, whereas the least turned out as meta-cognitive strategy. It implies that learners tend to solve the problem by inferring the content through the usage of clues. On the other hand, there were relatively a lack of diagnosis conducting self evaluation thus, substantial training should be necessary. Listening strategy also differed according to learner's listening proficiency. Those who rated their listening proficiency as high were found to use more frequent listening strategies, compared to their counterparts. With regard to memory, cognitive, compensation, and affective listening strategies, significant differences were noted in all level groups. Contrastingly, mean value difference did not occur in meta-cognitive strategy use of high-mid, mid-low level groups and in social strategy use of high-mid level groups. According to the results upon the survey of learners' preference in listening tasks, the most favored type of activity above all was 'choosing the relevant picture of the personage described'. On the other hand, the least was 'completing a graph or the blanks of a chart' and 'summarizing'. This can be considered as a result deduced from the personal differences in familiarity of a certain task or the typical pattern of problems that frequently occur in exams. In other words, instrumental motivation, not intrinsic motivation, may have significant influence over the selection of preferable tasks. In addition, listening strategies, achievement in English listening, and English grades were closely related. Cognitive and memory strategies had the highest correlation coefficient, whereas social and meta-cognitive strategy had the lowest. It can be inferred that if cognitive and memory strategies are intensively trained, there is a high possibility to achieve skills, compared to other strategies. Preference towards listening tasks 'summarizing', 'understanding the topic or the main idea', 'understanding the intent or the objective', 'understanding the specific details', and 'understanding the cause and effect of an incident' showed statistically a positive relationship with the achievement in English listening and English grades. The study also found that memory and cognitive strategies predicted learners’ achievement in English listening The factors that predicted the English grades were memory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive strategies, not the same as the factors that well-predicted the achievement in English listening. It can be concluded that English listening and English ability requires different comprehension processing. Both grades in English and listening achievement showed concurrence in tasks related to 'understanding the topic or the main idea' and 'understanding the specific details' according to the results of multiple regression analysis. In terms of the learners' opinions concerning listening lessons, The learners agreed that English listening was important, but they disagreed in that it played the core function out of the four skills. Even though the learners wanted to learn the requisites in improving listening skills, they did not show much effort. They were also indifferent to listening materials including textbooks. Learners wished for the listening lessons to include various activities concerning their interests. In order to meet their requirements, the teacher needs to promote the use of authentic listening materials. This study will help induce successful English listening learning based on the understanding of learners' tendencies in the use of strategies and preferences in types of listening tasks. Thus, these finding of the study suggest the need to develop listening strategy-based instruction and to reform the listening materials and classroom teaching. In order to facilitate improvement in lacking listening strategies, the teacher should recommend learners to use the study diary or the checklists evaluating their difficulties or affective factors or to interact with classmates for feedback on their achievement. Moreover, when selecting and constructing tasks, Supplementations reflecting the learners' demands are necessary and systematic adjustment of the degree of difficulty according to ability levels must be considered.; This study examined Korean middle school students' English listening strategies, achievement in English listening and preferences in types of listening tasks. The study also investigated the relationship between them and inquired about the perceptions of English listening lessons. Its goal is to propose a better guidance to listening lessons by understanding learners from different levels of ability. The survey was conducted with 260 second grade students in Middle School and the results were analyzed using SPSS statistics program. Supplementary interviews were also conducted on students from different levels of achievement in English listening. The findings indicated that the most frequently used listening strategy appeared to be compensation strategy, whereas the least turned out as meta-cognitive strategy. It implies that learners tend to solve the problem by inferring the content through the usage of clues. On the other hand, there were relatively a lack of diagnosis conducting self evaluation thus, substantial training should be necessary. Listening strategy also differed according to learner's listening proficiency. Those who rated their listening proficiency as high were found to use more frequent listening strategies, compared to their counterparts. With regard to memory, cognitive, compensation, and affective listening strategies, significant differences were noted in all level groups. Contrastingly, mean value difference did not occur in meta-cognitive strategy use of high-mid, mid-low level groups and in social strategy use of high-mid level groups. According to the results upon the survey of learners' preference in listening tasks, the most favored type of activity above all was 'choosing the relevant picture of the personage described'. On the other hand, the least was 'completing a graph or the blanks of a chart' and 'summarizing'. This can be considered as a result deduced from the personal differences in familiarity of a certain task or the typical pattern of problems that frequently occur in exams. In other words, instrumental motivation, not intrinsic motivation, may have significant influence over the selection of preferable tasks. In addition, listening strategies, achievement in English listening, and English grades were closely related. Cognitive and memory strategies had the highest correlation coefficient, whereas social and meta-cognitive strategy had the lowest. It can be inferred that if cognitive and memory strategies are intensively trained, there is a high possibility to achieve skills, compared to other strategies. Preference towards listening tasks 'summarizing', 'understanding the topic or the main idea', 'understanding the intent or the objective', 'understanding the specific details', and 'understanding the cause and effect of an incident' showed statistically a positive relationship with the achievement in English listening and English grades. The study also found that memory and cognitive strategies predicted learners’ achievement in English listening The factors that predicted the English grades were memory, cognitive, and meta-cognitive strategies, not the same as the factors that well-predicted the achievement in English listening. It can be concluded that English listening and English ability requires different comprehension processing. Both grades in English and listening achievement showed concurrence in tasks related to 'understanding the topic or the main idea' and 'understanding the specific details' according to the results of multiple regression analysis. In terms of the learners' opinions concerning listening lessons, The learners agreed that English listening was important, but they disagreed in that it played the core function out of the four skills. Even though the learners wanted to learn the requisites in improving listening skills, they did not show much effort. They were also indifferent to listening materials including textbooks. Learners wished for the listening lessons to include various activities concerning their interests. In order to meet their requirements, the teacher needs to promote the use of authentic listening materials. This study will help induce successful English listening learning based on the understanding of learners' tendencies in the use of strategies and preferences in types of listening tasks. Thus, these finding of the study suggest the need to develop listening strategy-based instruction and to reform the listening materials and classroom teaching. In order to facilitate improvement in lacking listening strategies, the teacher should recommend learners to use the study diary or the checklists evaluating their difficulties or affective factors or to interact with classmates for feedback on their achievement. Moreover, when selecting and constructing tasks, Supplementations reflecting the learners' demands are necessary and systematic adjustment of the degree of difficulty according to ability levels must be considered.
URI
https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/130558http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000425483
Appears in Collections:
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION[S](교육대학원) > MAJOR IN ENGLISH EDUCATION(영어교육전공) > Theses(Master)
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