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지속가능한 경쟁우위 달성을 위한 인적자원관리 특성 연구: 탐색과 활용에 따른 유형분류를 중심으로

Title
지속가능한 경쟁우위 달성을 위한 인적자원관리 특성 연구: 탐색과 활용에 따른 유형분류를 중심으로
Other Titles
HRM Characteristics for Sustainable Competitive Advantage : A Typology Approach for Exploration and Exploitation
Author
노진수
Alternative Author(s)
Roh, Jin Soo
Advisor(s)
전상길
Issue Date
2015-02
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
본 연구는 지속가능한 경쟁우위를 달성하는 조직을 탐색과 활용을 통해 정의하고, 이러한 조직에서 나타나는 인적자원관리의 특성을 분석하기 위해 각 기능별 경쟁적인 가치의 특성을 설정하고, 이러한 원리를 보완 적합성의 개념을 통해 설명하였다. 구체적으로는 먼저 자원기반관점의 논의에 따라 탐색과 활용을 ‘능력’으로 정의하고, 탐색능력과 활용능력 두 차원 통해 양면형 조직, 시장대응형 조직, 기술혁신형 조직, 표류형 조직으로 네가지 유형의 조직을 도출하였다. 그리고 분류된 네 가지 유형의 인적자원관리 특성을 분석하기 위해 각 기능별로 혼재되어 나타나는 역설적 가치를 설정하였다. 즉, 인력유동 시스템에서는 ‘조직과 개인의 관계를 어떻게 보는가?’의 논의를 기반으로 인력의 내부육성과 외부획득, 그리고 육성은 한 단계 더 분류하여 ‘인력을 어떻게 육성해야 하는가?’의 논의를 기반으로 광범위한 교육훈련을 통한 제네럴리스트 육성과 직무중심 교육훈련을 통한 스페셜리스트 육성을 설정하였다. 그리고 직무 시스템에서는 ‘조직 내부에서 직무를 수행하는 개인 본성에 대한 가정이 어떠한가?’의 논의를 기반으로 전사 프로그램의 참여에 해당하는 시스템 중심과 팀 내 자유로운 참여에 해당하는 사람 중심을 설정하였다. 그리고 평가보상 시스템에서는 ‘성과를 창출하기 위해 조직내부 인원들이 어떻게 상호작용하는가?’의 논의를 기반으로 개인기반 평가보상에 따른 경쟁과 집단 기반의 평가보상에 따른 협력을 설정하였다. 그리고 이렇게 설정된 각 시스템의 역설적 가치들이 양면형 조직에서는 모두 높게 나타날 것이라는 가설을 유사 적합성(supplementary fit)과 보완 적합성(complementary fit)의 논의를 기반으로 시스템 별로 각각 설정하였다. 가설검증 및 추가분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 양면형 조직은 제네럴리스트를 육성하는 광범위한 교육과 스페셜리스트를 육성하는 직무중심의 교육을 모두 높게 시행하며, 외부의 핵심인재를 획득하기 위한 제도도 많아 기업의 가치를 공유하고 있는 내부의 다양한 인재의 육성과 조직이 필요한 기술을 지니고 있는 외부의 다양한 인재를 모두 효과적으로 실행하고 있는 것으로 나타났고, 고용보장의 정도도 다른 조직보다 훨씬 많은 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 직무 시스템에서는 전사 시스템을 최적화하기 위한 전사 프로그램에 참여 할 수 있는 기회가 잘 갖추어져 있으며, 팀 내에서 개인의 잠재력을 마음껏 발휘하기 위한 자율성과 의사결정 권한이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로 평가보상 시스템에서는 다른 조직에 비해 사업부 인센티브와 전사 인센티브의 비중이 높은 것으로 나타났고, 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있지는 않으나 개인 기반 인센티브의 비중이 센 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 연구결과를 바탕으로 본 연구의 시사점은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 전략적 인적자원관리의 분류 체계를 보완 적합성의 개념을 통해 확장하였다. 둘째, 인적자원관리의 혼재되어 있는 역설적 가치를 인적자원관리의 기능레벨에서 제시하고 각 기능별 역설적 가치의 공존이 탐색과 활용의 양면성을 달성하는데 긍적적인 효과를 갖는다는 논리를 보완 적합성의 논의를 통해 제시하였다. 셋째, 현재 시장에서의 성과가 높은 조직, 현재 시장 성과는 낮으나 꾸준히 기술혁신을 하는 조직, 그리고 현재 시장의 성과도 높고 미래 시장변화에 대비한 기술혁신도 꾸준히 하는 조직에서 각각 나타나는 인적자원관리의 특성을 살펴봄으로써 탐색과 활용의 양면성을 달성하는 조직의 특성에 대한 이해와 각 특성이 현재시장의 성과를 추구하는 유형과 미래 시장에 대비한 기술혁신을 추구하는 유형 중 어디에서 파생된 특성인지를 확인할 수 있도록 하였다. 넷째, 최근 국내의 역설적 인적자원관리 시스템에 따른 탐색과 활용의 효과를 실증분석 하고, 실재 국내 기업이 탐색과 활용의 양면성을 달성하기 위해 인적자원관리를 어떻게 시행해야 하는지 방향을 제시하였다. 본 연구 결과는 이러한 시사점을 갖는 반면, 다음의 이론적 실무적 한계를 가지고 있다. 첫째, 본 연구는 탐색과 활용에 대한 보편적 관점에서의 인적자원관리의 방향에 대해서 논의하였는데, 추후 연구에서는 내/외부 환경적 특성에 따라 보다 구체적인 논의가 가능 할 것이라 생각된다. 둘째, 본 연구는 횡단적(cross-sectional) 데이터에 기반하여 귀납적 방법으로 연구를 진행하였는데, 추후 연구에서는 종단적(longitudinal) 데이터를 활용한 연구 및 연역적인 방법을 통한 연구도 필요할 것으로 생각된다. 셋째, 본 연구는 공시된 자료로 통계분석을 진행하였기 때문에 분석된 결과를 바탕으로 해당 기업의 사례연구를 진행하지 못했는데, 향후 연구에서는 사례 연구를 통해 보다 풍부한 논의를 할 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.|This study defines four organizational types through the use of exploitation and exploration, and presents paradoxical values in each functional human resource management system to know what characteristics of human resource management systems make four types of organizations gain sustainable competitive advantage, and explains the characteristics of the human resource managements in the four types of organizations through the concept of complementary fit. More specifically this study adopts the definition by following resource based perspective, considers exploitation and exploration as capability, and proposes the four types of organizations. They are ambidextrous organization, market responsive organization, technological innovative organization, and ambiguous organization. In order to analyze the human resource management characteristics of the four organizational typologies, this paper sets paradoxical values in each human resource management functions. In particular, it sets two paradoxical values: ‘making human resource inside’ and ‘buying human resource outside’, based on a question of ‘what is nature of relationship between organization and individual?’ for human resource flow system, and also sets two paradoxical values: nurturing generalists by providing broad education, and nurturing specialists by job focused training, based on a question of ‘how shall human resource be fostered?’ for human resource development. Furthermore, two paradoxical values: system focused participation and individual focused teams for work system, are set based on a question of ‘what is the assumption of employee’s nature when they work in the organization?’ In evaluation and compensation system, two paradoxical values are set, such as the competition formed by individual focused system, and the cooperation formed by group focused system based on a question of ‘in order to achieve goal, how do employees interact with each other inside organization?’ According to these settings, this study proposes four hypotheses that the ambidextrous organization reaches high paradox values in all systems, based on supplementary fit and complementary fit arguments. Results of hypotheses testing and additional analysis are as following. The ambidextrous organization reaches high value in fostering generalists by general training as well as fostering specialists by focused training. This organization also adopts many policies for acquiring external important human resources. Thus, the ambidextrous organization effectively manages human resources both internally and externally for developing critical technologies. Besides, employment assurance policies are found more than in other organizations. Regarding work system, ambidextrous organization presents many opportunities for employees to participate general corporate programs in order to promote system optimization, and on team level, it tries to explore each individual’s potential by granting more freedom and power in decision making. Lastly, incentives linked to departments' and the whole corporation's performance are higher than other organizations have and although statistical proof has not demonstrated difference in individual incentive systems between the ambidextrous organization and other organizations significantly, the figures in statistics show that the ambidextrous organization has higher individual incentives than others. Based on the findings, this study has following implications. First of all, it presents extended classification of strategic human resource management theory based on complementary fit logic. Second, it represents the paradoxical values in each human resource management functions, explaining the positive influence of paradoxical values in each human resource management functions on achieving ambidexterity of exploration and exploitation based on supplementary fit. Third, it presents each Characteristics of four typolgies in human resource management systems. Fourth, it adopts an empirical study on effects of exploration and exploitation of recent domestic paradoxical human resource management system, and suggests directions to domestic organizations for human resource management development on the purpose of promoting exploration and exploitation. In spite of all the implications, this study still resides some limitations. First, this study discussed the universalistic perspectives of human resource management directions based on exploitation and exploration. Further studies need to consider the characteristics of internal and external environments. Second, we used cross-sectional data and mostly adopted an inductive way to analyze. Future analysis needs to adopt longitudinal data and deductive analysis. Third, statistical analysis of this study is based on posted data, so it is impossible for us to conduct focused case studies on firms. Later studies may yield more meaningful results through conducting case studies.
This study defines four organizational types through the use of exploitation and exploration, and presents paradoxical values in each functional human resource management system to know what characteristics of human resource management systems make four types of organizations gain sustainable competitive advantage, and explains the characteristics of the human resource managements in the four types of organizations through the concept of complementary fit. More specifically this study adopts the definition by following resource based perspective, considers exploitation and exploration as capability, and proposes the four types of organizations. They are ambidextrous organization, market responsive organization, technological innovative organization, and ambiguous organization. In order to analyze the human resource management characteristics of the four organizational typologies, this paper sets paradoxical values in each human resource management functions. In particular, it sets two paradoxical values: ‘making human resource inside’ and ‘buying human resource outside’, based on a question of ‘what is nature of relationship between organization and individual?’ for human resource flow system, and also sets two paradoxical values: nurturing generalists by providing broad education, and nurturing specialists by job focused training, based on a question of ‘how shall human resource be fostered?’ for human resource development. Furthermore, two paradoxical values: system focused participation and individual focused teams for work system, are set based on a question of ‘what is the assumption of employee’s nature when they work in the organization?’ In evaluation and compensation system, two paradoxical values are set, such as the competition formed by individual focused system, and the cooperation formed by group focused system based on a question of ‘in order to achieve goal, how do employees interact with each other inside organization?’ According to these settings, this study proposes four hypotheses that the ambidextrous organization reaches high paradox values in all systems, based on supplementary fit and complementary fit arguments. Results of hypotheses testing and additional analysis are as following. The ambidextrous organization reaches high value in fostering generalists by general training as well as fostering specialists by focused training. This organization also adopts many policies for acquiring external important human resources. Thus, the ambidextrous organization effectively manages human resources both internally and externally for developing critical technologies. Besides, employment assurance policies are found more than in other organizations. Regarding work system, ambidextrous organization presents many opportunities for employees to participate general corporate programs in order to promote system optimization, and on team level, it tries to explore each individual’s potential by granting more freedom and power in decision making. Lastly, incentives linked to departments' and the whole corporation's performance are higher than other organizations have and although statistical proof has not demonstrated difference in individual incentive systems between the ambidextrous organization and other organizations significantly, the figures in statistics show that the ambidextrous organization has higher individual incentives than others. Based on the findings, this study has following implications. First of all, it presents extended classification of strategic human resource management theory based on complementary fit logic. Second, it represents the paradoxical values in each human resource management functions, explaining the positive influence of paradoxical values in each human resource management functions on achieving ambidexterity of exploration and exploitation based on supplementary fit. Third, it presents each Characteristics of four typolgies in human resource management systems. Fourth, it adopts an empirical study on effects of exploration and exploitation of recent domestic paradoxical human resource management system, and suggests directions to domestic organizations for human resource management development on the purpose of promoting exploration and exploitation. In spite of all the implications, this study still resides some limitations. First, this study discussed the universalistic perspectives of human resource management directions based on exploitation and exploration. Further studies need to consider the characteristics of internal and external environments. Second, we used cross-sectional data and mostly adopted an inductive way to analyze. Future analysis needs to adopt longitudinal data and deductive analysis. Third, statistical analysis of this study is based on posted data, so it is impossible for us to conduct focused case studies on firms. Later studies may yield more meaningful results through conducting case studies.
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https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/129676http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000426584
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GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > MANAGEMENT CONSULTING(경영컨설팅학과) > Theses (Ph.D.)
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