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서울시 도시개발사업의 도시조직특성과 보행량의 관련성 실증분석

Title
서울시 도시개발사업의 도시조직특성과 보행량의 관련성 실증분석
Other Titles
Relationship between Pedestrian Volume and Characteristics of Urban Tissue on Urban Development Projects in Seoul, Korea: Focused on Land readjustment project and Land development project
Author
강진구
Alternative Author(s)
Kang, Jin Gu
Advisor(s)
최창규
Issue Date
2016-08
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Master
Abstract
서울시는 역사적으로 다양한 도시개발사업을 활용하여 왔고 이에 따라 서로 다른 도시조직을 만들어 왔다. 이러한 도시개발사업은 시대에 따라 다른 목적을 위해 사용되어 오면서 서울시 도시조직에 영향을 미쳤다. 일제가 시행하던 구획정리사업, 한국전쟁 이후 1980년대까지 간선가로망, 공원 등의 공공용지를 확보하고자 시행된 토지구획정리사업, 1980년 이후 현재까지 주택공급을 위한 대규모 아파트단지 식인 택지개발사업 등이 도시조직에 영향을 미친 도시개발사업의 종류라 할 수 있다. 도시조직은 보행활동에 영향을 미치는 요소 중 하나이며, 도시조직이 보행활동 및 보행활성화에 영향을 미친다. 도시조직의 유형에 따라 보행활동에 영향을 주는 보행접근성에 영향을 미친다. 또한, 활력 있는 도시의 삶은 사람들이 많은 활기찬 거리의 삶이며, 활기찬 도시를 위한 필요한 요소 중 소규모 블록은 보행활동에 다양성을 증대시켜 도시의 활력을 가져다 줄 수 있다. 또한, 보행활동은 인간의 기본적인 교통수단일 뿐만 아니라 도시 및 지역의 사회적 및 경제적 활성화에 많은 영향을 미친다. 특히, 보행량은 도시 및 지역, 거리 등의 보행활동 및 활성화를 나타낼 수 있는 중요한 지표이며, 도시 및 지역의 조직과 물리적 가로환경특성, 등의 많은 보행환경요인에 영향을 받는다. 현재, 대부분의 연구들은 물리적 가로환경특성과 보행량과의 관계에 대한 연구가 진행 되어온 반면, 도시조직과 보행량과의 연구들은 미흡하다. 이에 따라, 본 연구의 목적은 서울시에서 역사적으로 활용되었던 도시개발사업의 도시조직특성과 보행량과의 영향관계를 확인하여 어떠한 도시조직이 보행량에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는지 확인하고자 하는 것이며, 각각의 서로 다른 조직에서 보행량에 영향을 미치는 요소가 무엇인지 알고자 하는 것이다. 본 연구의 공간적 범위는 서울시 전체로 선정하였으며, 도시조직과 보행량과의 연관성을 분석하기 위하여 서울시 도시개발사업인 토지구획정리사업지역과 택지개발사업지역을 선정하였다. 시간적 범위는 보행량을 측정한 유동인구조사가 실시된 2009년을 기준으로 하였다. 본 연구의 종속변수는 2009년 서울시 유동인구조사자료의 평일 평균 보행량에 자연로그(ln)로 치환한 값으로 설정하였으며, 독립변수는 가로환경특성, 밀도특성, 접근성, 토지이용특성, 지역특성을 선정하였다. 서울시 전체를 대상으로 소규모 도시조직을 대변하는 토지구획정리사업지역과 대규모 도시조직을 대변하는 택지개발사업지역의 보행량 조사지점을 비교·분석하였다. 보행량에 영향을 미치는 가로환경특성, 밀도특성, 접근성, 토지이용특성, 지역특성의 변수들을 통제변수(Control Valuables)로 선정하여 각 변수들을 차례로 컨트롤하면서 도시조직특성과 보행량과의 영향관계를 확인하였다. 그 결과, 대규모 블록의 아파트단지 식 도시조직보다 소규모 블록의 형태를 가진 도시조직에서 보행량이 많았으며, 소규모 도시조직이 도시 및 가로활성화에 긍정적인 영향을 미친다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 두 번째로, 토지구획정리사업지역과 택지개발사업지역을 나누어 분석하여 각각의 다른 도시조직을 가진 지역에서 1960년대 이전부터 2000년대까지의 시대별 특성변수를 추가하여 각각의 서로 다른 도시조직에서 어떠한 요소들이 보행량에 영향을 미치는지 분석하고자 하였다. 그 결과, 시대별 특성변수는 1960년대 소규모 도시조직을 가진 토지구획정리사업지역에서 보행량이 많다는 결과를 보였으며, 시대가 지남에 따라 대규모 도시조직으로의 변화가 보행량에 부정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 대규모 도시조직을 가진 택지개발사업지역에서는 대규모 블록의 아파트 식 도시조직에서 보행량이 적다는 결과를 확인하였다. 각각의 서로 다른 도시조직지역에서 접근성 및 지역특성과 보행량과의 관계는 같은 결과를 보였지만, 가로환경특성, 밀도특성, 토지이용특성의 변수들에서 서로 다른 결과를 나타냈다. 소규모 도시조직지역에서는 보도 폭, 차로 수, 보행전용도로, 버스차로, 경사로, 펜스, 버스정류장 및 지하철역입구유무, 횡단보도 유무 변수가 영향을 미쳤으며, 밀도특성의 용적률과 필지 수가 영향을 미쳤다. 토지이용특성에서는 단독주택, 다세대 및 다가구주택, 공동주택, 근린생활시설, 문화여가, 판매시설, 재래시장, 교육시설, 업무시설면적이 보행량에 영향을 미쳤다. 대규모 도시조직지역에서는 보도 폭, 펜스, 횡단보도유무가 영향을 미쳤으며, 밀도특성의 용적률만 영향을 미쳤다. 토지이용특성변수에서는 공동주택, 근린생활시설, 판매시설, 숙박위락시설, 의료복지시설, 교육시설면적이 보행량에 영향을 미쳤다. 본 연구의 실증분석결과는 현재 대규모 아파트 개발위주의 택지개발사업이 주로 이루고 있는 상황에서 도시 및 지역 활성화를 위한 도시재생사업 등 도시계획 및 개발사업 시 가로의 물리적 환경요인 뿐 만 아니라 도시조직을 고려하여야 한다는 것을 시사한다. 따라서 이러한 사업들을 진행할 때 기초 자료로 활용될 수 있을 것이다.| The City of Seoul has used diverse urban development projects in the past, thus creating different urban tissues. Such urban development projects have been used for different purposes, according to the times, thereby influencing Seoul's urban tissues. The urban development projects that have influenced the urban tissue included colonial Japan's land re-adjustment projects, land re-adjustment projects, which were conducted from post-Korean War to 1980s, in order to secure key street networks, parks, and other public use lands, as well as mass apartment complex-style land development projects conducted to date since 1980s. Urban tissue is a factor that influences pedestrian activity and activation. There are also different types of urban tissue that influence pedestrian accessibility and pedestrian activity. A vibrant urban life influences the activities of many people and their surrounding small-scale city blocks, which are necessary for an urban vitality, thereby increasing the diversity of pedestrian activity and invigorating the city. Furthermore, pedestrian activity is not only a means of transport for the people, but it is also greatly influential on the social and economic activation of the urban and regional areas. In addition, the pedestrian volume is an important index that indicates pedestrian activity and activation of a city, region, and street, among others. It is significantly influenced by the urban and regional tissues, physical street environment characteristics, and other pedestrian environment factors. Most of the relevant studies have focused on the relationship between physical street environment characteristics and pedestrian volume, while studies on the relationship between urban tissue and pedestrian volume have not been activated. As a result, this study aims to identify the influential relationship between the urban tissue characteristics and pedestrian volume of Seoul's past urban development projects, determine which urban tissue positively influenced the pedestrian volume, and define the factors that influenced the pedestrian volume in each different tissue. In terms of spatial scope, this study targeted the entire Seoul area, analyzed the connectivity between urban tissue and pedestrian volume, and selected land re-adjustment project areas and land development project areas under Seoul's implemented urban development projects. In terms of time span, this study targeted the year 2009 when the traveling population was surveyed in order to measure the pedestrian volume. This study set dependent variables by replacing the 2009 Seoul traveling population survey's weekday average pedestrian volume with natural logarithms (ln), and established independent variables, such as street environment characteristics, density characteristics, accessibility, land use characteristics, and regional characteristics. First, After targeting the whole Seoul area, the pedestrian volume survey points were analyzed and compared in the land re-adjustment project areas that represented the small-scale urban tissue and the land development project areas that represented the large-scale urban tissue. Variables that influenced the pedestrian volume, such as street environment characteristics, density characteristics, accessibility, land use characteristics, and regional characteristics, were selected as control variables, and the influential relationship between urban tissue characteristics and pedestrian volume was identified. As a result, the pedestrian volume was higher in the small-scale block-style urban tissue than the large-scale block apartment complex-style urban tissue. It was also found that the small-scale urban tissue positively influenced the urban and street activation. Second, the land re-adjustment project areas and the land development project areas were analyzed. In areas with different urban tissues, the elements that influenced the pedestrian volume with the addition of specific variables by time before the 1960s to 2000s were analyzed. As a result, a higher pedestrian volume was found in the land re-adjustment project areas with the small-scale urban tissue during the 1960s in terms of specific variables by time. With the passage of time, a change to the large-scale urban tissue negatively influenced the pedestrian volume. In the land development project areas with a large-scale urban tissue, a lower pedestrian volume was found in the large-scale block apartment-style urban tissue. In areas with different urban tissues, the relationship among accessibility, regional characteristics, and the pedestrian volume have the same results
however, the relationship among the variables of street environment characteristics, density characteristics, and land use characteristics have different results. In areas with a small-scale urban tissue, the pedestrian volume was influenced by variables, such as the walkway width, number of roadway lanes, exclusive pedestrian roads, bus lanes, slope roads, fences, bus stops, existence or non-existence of subway station entrances, and existence or non-existence of cross walks, as well as by the floor area ratio and the number of land plots among the density characteristics. In the land use characteristics, the pedestrian volume was influenced by the area covering the detached houses, multiplex houses, multi-household houses, apartment houses, neighborhood living facilities, culture and leisure activities, shopping facilities, traditional markets, educational facilities, and business facilities. In areas with a large-scale urban tissue, the pedestrian volume was influenced by the walkway width, fences, existence or non-existence of crosswalks, and floor area ratio of density characteristics. In the land use characteristics variables, the pedestrian volume was influenced by the area covering the apartment houses, neighborhood living facilities, shopping facilities, accommodation and recreational facilities, medical and welfare facilities, and educational facilities. The findings of this study suggest that when executing urban planning and development projects, such as urban regeneration projects aimed at urban and regional activation, not only the physical environment of the streets, but also the urban tissue should be taken into account, along with the land development projects being executed with focus on large-scale apartment development. These findings are expected to be used for the implementation of such projects.
The City of Seoul has used diverse urban development projects in the past, thus creating different urban tissues. Such urban development projects have been used for different purposes, according to the times, thereby influencing Seoul's urban tissues. The urban development projects that have influenced the urban tissue included colonial Japan's land re-adjustment projects, land re-adjustment projects, which were conducted from post-Korean War to 1980s, in order to secure key street networks, parks, and other public use lands, as well as mass apartment complex-style land development projects conducted to date since 1980s. Urban tissue is a factor that influences pedestrian activity and activation. There are also different types of urban tissue that influence pedestrian accessibility and pedestrian activity. A vibrant urban life influences the activities of many people and their surrounding small-scale city blocks, which are necessary for an urban vitality, thereby increasing the diversity of pedestrian activity and invigorating the city. Furthermore, pedestrian activity is not only a means of transport for the people, but it is also greatly influential on the social and economic activation of the urban and regional areas. In addition, the pedestrian volume is an important index that indicates pedestrian activity and activation of a city, region, and street, among others. It is significantly influenced by the urban and regional tissues, physical street environment characteristics, and other pedestrian environment factors. Most of the relevant studies have focused on the relationship between physical street environment characteristics and pedestrian volume, while studies on the relationship between urban tissue and pedestrian volume have not been activated. As a result, this study aims to identify the influential relationship between the urban tissue characteristics and pedestrian volume of Seoul's past urban development projects, determine which urban tissue positively influenced the pedestrian volume, and define the factors that influenced the pedestrian volume in each different tissue. In terms of spatial scope, this study targeted the entire Seoul area, analyzed the connectivity between urban tissue and pedestrian volume, and selected land re-adjustment project areas and land development project areas under Seoul's implemented urban development projects. In terms of time span, this study targeted the year 2009 when the traveling population was surveyed in order to measure the pedestrian volume. This study set dependent variables by replacing the 2009 Seoul traveling population survey's weekday average pedestrian volume with natural logarithms (ln), and established independent variables, such as street environment characteristics, density characteristics, accessibility, land use characteristics, and regional characteristics. First, After targeting the whole Seoul area, the pedestrian volume survey points were analyzed and compared in the land re-adjustment project areas that represented the small-scale urban tissue and the land development project areas that represented the large-scale urban tissue. Variables that influenced the pedestrian volume, such as street environment characteristics, density characteristics, accessibility, land use characteristics, and regional characteristics, were selected as control variables, and the influential relationship between urban tissue characteristics and pedestrian volume was identified. As a result, the pedestrian volume was higher in the small-scale block-style urban tissue than the large-scale block apartment complex-style urban tissue. It was also found that the small-scale urban tissue positively influenced the urban and street activation. Second, the land re-adjustment project areas and the land development project areas were analyzed. In areas with different urban tissues, the elements that influenced the pedestrian volume with the addition of specific variables by time before the 1960s to 2000s were analyzed. As a result, a higher pedestrian volume was found in the land re-adjustment project areas with the small-scale urban tissue during the 1960s in terms of specific variables by time. With the passage of time, a change to the large-scale urban tissue negatively influenced the pedestrian volume. In the land development project areas with a large-scale urban tissue, a lower pedestrian volume was found in the large-scale block apartment-style urban tissue. In areas with different urban tissues, the relationship among accessibility, regional characteristics, and the pedestrian volume have the same results
URI
https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/125712http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000486848
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GRADUATE SCHOOL OF URBAN STUDIES[S](도시대학원) > URBAN DESIGN AND LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE(도시설계·조경학과) > Theses (Master)
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