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한·중 “전략적 협력동반자 관계”의 실효성 연구

Title
한·중 “전략적 협력동반자 관계”의 실효성 연구
Other Titles
Effectiveness of the “Strategic Cooperative Partnership” between South Korea and China
Author
현미정
Alternative Author(s)
Xuan Meizhen
Advisor(s)
홍용표
Issue Date
2020-02
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Master
Abstract
중국과 한국은 지정학적으로 긴밀하게 연결되어 있다. 양국은 정치제도, 경제발전 방식, 이념 등 차이가 존재하지만, 국가이익과 공동발전의 수요에 따라 1992년 수교 이래 양국관계는 빠른 속도로 발전했다. 무엇보다 중국은 한국과 수교 당시의 선린협력관계를 2008년 전략적 협력동반자 관계(战略合作伙伴关系)로 격상시켜 더 심층적이고 다각적인 협력을 위한 토대와 여건을 마련했다. 양국은 공동 성명을 통해 협력의 목표와 영역에 합의했고, 전략적 협력동반자 관계를 맺은 이후 한·중 관계는 진전을 이루었으며 동북아 지역의 번영과 안정, 그리고 평화를 촉진했다. 그러나 양국관계의 발전이 순탄치만은 않았다. 양국은 2008년 전략적 협력동반자 관계를 맺은 이후 양국의 핵심적 이익과 관련하여 갈등도 보여줬다. 이와 같은 상황을 고려했을 때 동반자 관계외교를 적극적으로 추구하는 중국의 관점에서 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계의 실효성에 대해 성과와 한계를 중심으로 평가하고 한계로서 나타나는 갈등의 원인이 무엇인지에 대한 분석이 필요하다. 따라서 본 논문은 중국의 관점에서 “한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계”의 실효성에 대해 평가하고 한·중 양국이 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계를 추구하고 체결했음에도 불구하고, 여전히 갈등과 충돌이 발생하게 되는 원인을 분석한다. 동반자 관계에 관한 선행연구는 주로 중국의 동반자 관계외교 정책에 대한 거시적 분석에 집중되어 있으며, 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계에 대한 구체적인 분석은 한국의 관점에서 그 의미와 한계를 분석하는 데 국한되어 있다. 따라서 선행연구와 본 논문의 차이점은 동맹 관계와 동반자 관계의 비교와 중국의 동반자외교에 대한 개념적 분석을 바탕으로 한·중 전략적 동반자 관계를 구체적으로 분석하는 것이다. 특히, 실효성 연구와 관련하여, 주로 중국의 관점에서 전략적 목적, 그리고 현실적으로 존재하는 한계를 비교하는 것을 통해 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계의 실효성을 분석한다. 2008년 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계 수립 이후의 성과와 갈등을 비교하며, 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계에 영향을 미치는 요인을 분석한다. 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계 구축의 가장 큰 의미는 양국이 경제 분야에서의 협력을 강조했을 뿐만 아니라, 군사안보 분야로 협력을 확장했다는 점이다. 그러나 양국은 정치적 상호 신뢰, 경제협력 그리고 안보협력에서 현실적 문제가 있다. 대표적인 사례는 천안함 침몰과 연평도 포격 사건, 마늘 무역분쟁 그리고 사드 배치를 들 수 있으며, 여기에서 중국이 한국과의 전략적 협력동반자 관계를 추진하는 과정에서 내·외부적 제한을 받는 것을 알 수 있다. 분석의 결과는 우선, 한·중 간 갈등을 처리하는 과정에서 중국 동반자 관계의 제도적 한계를 보여줬다. 왜냐하면 동반자 관계의 수립과 동시에 공동 성명을 발표하면서 정치·안보·경제·문화 등 다양한 영역에서의 협력에 합의했지만, 갈등이나 돌발사건이 발생할 때 갈등 해소하는 구속력 있는 기제가 부재하다. 둘째, 중대한 국익에 대한 인식 차이는 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계에 영향을 미쳤다. 한·중 양국이 전략적 교류에서 협력과 동시에 의견 차이가 나타났고, 이러한 구조에 이중성이 내재해 있음을 보여줬다. 셋째, 동북아 지역의 평화정착에 있어 반드시 해결되어야 하지만 여전히 해결되지 못한 한잔도 문제는 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계에 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 또한, 한반도 통일문제에 대한 남북한 간 갈등이 해소되지 못한 상황에서 충돌이 발생하게 되면 한·중 관계는 부정적 영향을 받게 될 것이다. 넷째, 미국과 중국은 동북아 지역에서 경쟁하는 양상을 보인다. 그러나 한국은 미국과 동맹 관계를, 중국과 전략적 협력동반자 관계를 맺었다. 따라서 중국이 동북아 지역에서의 국익추구에 있어 미국의 영향은 불가피하여, 동반자 관계와 동맹 관계 사이에서 균형을 유지해야 하는 어려움에 직면했다. 따라서 이상의 원인으로 인해 한·중 전략적 협력동반자 관계는 성과와 동시에 한계를 보였다. 따라서 중국은 동북아 지역은 물론 나아가 국제사회에서의 한국의 전략적 가치와 위상을 더욱 중시해야 한다. | As neighboring countries in Northeast Asia, the geopolitical relations between South Korea and China are closely connected. Despite huge differences in political systems, economic development methods and ideologies between the two countries, bilateral relations have developed rapidly since 1992, depending on national interests and the demand for joint development. China upgraded the relations to South Korea to the “Strategic Cooperative Partnership” in 2008, laying the groundwork and conditions for deeper and a diverse cooperation. China and South Korea agreed on the goals of cooperation through a joint statement, and in fact, Sino-ROK relations had made rapid progress since the establishment of strategic cooperative partnership, promoting regional prosperity, stability and peace. However, the development of bilateral relations was not as smooth as expected. Therefore, this research evaluates the effectiveness of the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea from the China’s point of view and analyzes the reasons why conflicts still occur despite the fact that the two countries had already pursued and signed the Sino-ROK strategic cooperative partnership. Existing studies on partnership have focused on macro-analysis of China’s partnership policy, and detailed analysis on Sino-ROK strategic cooperative partnership was limited to analyzing its meaning and limitations from the perspective of South Korea. The difference of this paper is the concrete analysis of Sino-ROK Strategic Cooperative Partnership based on the comparison of alliance and partnership and the conceptual analysis of China’s partnership diplomacy. Moreover, this study focuses on the effectiveness of the Sino-ROK Strategic Cooperative Partnership through the comparison between China’s strategic interests and the limitations that exist in practice. The results of the analysis, first of all, agreed to cooperate in areas such as politics, security and economy by issuing a joint statement when establishing a strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea, but there is no effective binding mechanism in the event of conflict and unexpected events. So there is a problem that cooperation in important political and security fields are difficult to guarantee by this kind of bilateral relationship. Second, significant differences about interests and perceptions affected the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea. The gap in economic interests and disagreement on the North Korean issue are also the causes of conflict between China and South Korea. Third, the relations between North and South Korea on the Korean Peninsula have seriously affected the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea as a long-term issue of regional peace and stability. In addition, a conflict between two Koreas on the unification issue has a negative impact on the Sino-ROK relationship when the conflict could not be easily resolved. Fourth, South Korea and the U.S. are allies, and South Korea also established the strategic cooperative partnerships with China. Thus, in the state of competition between the U.S. and China, the factors of the U.S. could have a negative impact on the development of Sino-ROK relations. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balance with the ROK-US alliance by upgrading the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea that China has pursued. Due to the above reasons, the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea is showing its limitations even as it achieve results. Therefore, China should put more emphasis on South Korea’s strategic status in the economic and security fields in Northeast Asia as well as in the international arena.
As neighboring countries in Northeast Asia, the geopolitical relations between South Korea and China are closely connected. Despite huge differences in political systems, economic development methods and ideologies between the two countries, bilateral relations have developed rapidly since 1992, depending on national interests and the demand for joint development. China upgraded the relations to South Korea to the “Strategic Cooperative Partnership” in 2008, laying the groundwork and conditions for deeper and a diverse cooperation. China and South Korea agreed on the goals of cooperation through a joint statement, and in fact, Sino-ROK relations had made rapid progress since the establishment of strategic cooperative partnership, promoting regional prosperity, stability and peace. However, the development of bilateral relations was not as smooth as expected. Therefore, this research evaluates the effectiveness of the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea from the China’s point of view and analyzes the reasons why conflicts still occur despite the fact that the two countries had already pursued and signed the Sino-ROK strategic cooperative partnership. Existing studies on partnership have focused on macro-analysis of China’s partnership policy, and detailed analysis on Sino-ROK strategic cooperative partnership was limited to analyzing its meaning and limitations from the perspective of South Korea. The difference of this paper is the concrete analysis of Sino-ROK Strategic Cooperative Partnership based on the comparison of alliance and partnership and the conceptual analysis of China’s partnership diplomacy. Moreover, this study focuses on the effectiveness of the Sino-ROK Strategic Cooperative Partnership through the comparison between China’s strategic interests and the limitations that exist in practice. The results of the analysis, first of all, agreed to cooperate in areas such as politics, security and economy by issuing a joint statement when establishing a strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea, but there is no effective binding mechanism in the event of conflict and unexpected events. So there is a problem that cooperation in important political and security fields are difficult to guarantee by this kind of bilateral relationship. Second, significant differences about interests and perceptions affected the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea. The gap in economic interests and disagreement on the North Korean issue are also the causes of conflict between China and South Korea. Third, the relations between North and South Korea on the Korean Peninsula have seriously affected the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea as a long-term issue of regional peace and stability. In addition, a conflict between two Koreas on the unification issue has a negative impact on the Sino-ROK relationship when the conflict could not be easily resolved. Fourth, South Korea and the U.S. are allies, and South Korea also established the strategic cooperative partnerships with China. Thus, in the state of competition between the U.S. and China, the factors of the U.S. could have a negative impact on the development of Sino-ROK relations. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balance with the ROK-US alliance by upgrading the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea that China has pursued. Due to the above reasons, the strategic cooperative partnership between China and South Korea is showing its limitations even as it achieve results. Therefore, China should put more emphasis on South Korea’s strategic status in the economic and security fields in Northeast Asia as well as in the international arena.
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http://dcollection.hanyang.ac.kr/common/orgView/000000112661https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/123810
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GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES(정치외교학과) > Theses (Master)
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