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비평적 관점으로 본 안나 할프린의 과정중심 무용작품 연구

Title
비평적 관점으로 본 안나 할프린의 과정중심 무용작품 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Anna Halprin’s Process-Oriented Dance from a Critical Point of View
Author
김미영
Alternative Author(s)
KIM ME YOUNG
Advisor(s)
손관중
Issue Date
2020-02
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
동시대 예술의 특징 중 하나는 예술과 일상이 결합되고 예술작품의 제작과 소비에 있어 관객의 경험을 중시하고 관객 참여 형태의 작업이 증가하는 것에 있다. 무용분야에서도 이와 같은 현상으로 관객의 체험을 중시하고 과정에 중심을 두는 경향을 보인다. 그러나 많은 작업들이 예술의 교육적 형태와 차별되지 않거나, 최종 작업의 결과에 있어 예술성과 미학적 성과를 간과하는 모습이 관찰된다. 이는 작품제작에 책임이 있는 안무가들이 일반인 참여를 중심으로 하는 무용에서 우선적으로 가져야 하는 기준과 방법론을 제대로 갖추고 있지 않기 때문이라 판단된다. 본 논문은 최근 증가하고 있는 이러한 과정중심의 무용작업들을 지켜보면서 과연 이들이 지향해야 할 목표는 무엇인지 또한 어떤 방법론을 가져야 하는지에 대한 의문에서 시작되었다. 과정중심 무용작업이라 함은 무대에 서게 되는 결과물로서의 공연 지향적인 작업보다는 작품의 과정가운데 발생되는 정서를 공유하고, 공동체로서 공동의 목표를 향유하며, 소통의 방법을 개발하는 등 예술작품의 창작에 있어 결과보다는 과정을 더욱 중시하는 작업을 말한다. 연구자는 1960년대 미국의 무용계에 과정중심 무용을 활성화 시킨 안나 할프린의 작업에 주목하였다. 할프린은 자신의 작업을 미적 가치에 두기 보다는 예술적 가치에 중점을 둠으로써 관객과 만나 하나의 결과물로서 작품이 완성되어가는 작품의 제작 과정에 비중을 높이고 공연장에서 일어나는 소통의 작업을 중요시 하였다. 할프린의 예술철학과 작업방식은 포스트모던 댄스가 발전하기 이전 포스트모던 댄서들에게 영향을 끼치고 포스트모던 댄스의 형식이 갖추어지는데 큰 영향력을 미쳤다. 이러한 할프린의 과정중심 예술은 미국의 고등교육에서 무용의 아버지라 불렸던 존 듀이의 ‘경험으로서의 예술’ 미학을 시금석으로, 듀이에게 영향을 받았고 할프린의 스승이었던 마가렛 두블러의 ‘창조적 경험으로서의 춤’ 철학이 견고하게 쌓아올려져 실천된 예술이다. 존 듀이는 ‘경험으로서의 예술’ 미학을 통해 건강한 정신이 건강한 신체의 삶을 구성한다고 주장했고, 마가렛 두블러는 감정과 움직임을 연결시키기 위해 반복적이고, 반사적인 근육 반응을 통한 과학적 훈련을 강조했다. 이러한 듀이와 두블러의 연구는 안나 할프린이 과정중심 무용을 개척하는데 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 견고한 미학적 바탕과 춤에 대한 확고한 철학, 구조화된 과정중심 창작 메소드를 갖는 할프린의 작품이 비평적 가치를 가지는 이유가 여기에 있다. 안나 할프린의 1950년대부터 이루어진 급진적인 실험들은 그 시대 예술의 전통적 한계에 위배되는 것이었다. 그녀는 ‘춤 탐험’이라는 새로운 시도를 추구하였다. 또한 즉흥 안에 시간, 공간, 힘의 단일 요소에 대한 특정한 초점을 보장하면서 경험을 체계화하기 위한 ‘구조의 필요성’을 주장하며 RSVP 사이클을 개발했다. 본 연구자는 그 중에 S단계인 스코어를 주목하였다. 스코어는 단순한 동선이나 움직임을 표기하는 것을 넘어 참여자들의 소통과 경험으로서의 무용을 가능케 함으로 과정중심 무용작업의 핵심이라고 할 수 있다. 그녀는 수많은 즉흥적, 일상적인 움직임들을 기반으로 자신의 작품에 대한 기본 명제, 무엇을 표현할 것인지에 대한 명확한 목적을 가진 스코어를 통해 작품 안의 일련의 과정들을 참여자들이 보다 섬세하게 경험할 수 있도록 하였다. 분석대상 작품은 , , 이다. 이들 네 작품을 토대로 그녀가 창작의 과정가운데 경험시키고자 한 것들은 무엇인지에 대한 과정과 작품에 대한 미적 요소들을 분석하였으며 그 결과 일상성, 자연성, 공동체성, 심리 운동학적 심상 등 네 가지로 정리했다.|This study examines the recently increasing process-oriented dance works and contemplates on their goal and methodology. The paper also examines the reason of the recent hike of process-oriented dance works. Different from the performance-oriented works that focus on the outcome presented on stage, the process-oriented dance puts more stress on the process, such as emotional sharing, common goal as a community, or method of communication that occur during the work process. These days, people are living in a world that drastically evolves every day following the fourth industrial revolution. As a result, their emotional needs also changed from the past, which resembles the situation that took place while the art trend converted from modernism to postmodernism in the past. While main key words of the postmodernism era included war, discrimination, loss of humanity, and mental poverty, contemporary society has similar social issues. These days, humanity is lost as the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence emerged facing the era of the fourth industrial revolution and people are experiencing mental poverty coming from egoism and individualism. Postmodern dance, which was created by fighting against modernism, criticized and tried to alter the society. Postmodern dance abandoned advanced techniques and filled the stage with natural movements from daily activities. Dancers began to wear daily outfits, instead of dance costumes and performed in the nature or on street growing out of the existing theater stages. This kind of change is currently occurring in Korean society. This paper focused on the dance works by Anna Halprin who made a tremendous contribution to the formation of postmodern dance with a great influence on postmodern dancers before the postmodern dance began to develop in earnest. Many people in Korea paid attention to the therapeutic value of Anna Halprin's work, rather than artistic value. There are only a few relevant research materials as of now and they are mainly from a therapeutic aspect. However, her work has sufficient artistic value as a model of process-oriented art works, which are currently growing in Korea. Anna Halprin focused more on artistic value than aesthetic value of art. She increased the weight of production process and paid close attention to what happens while meeting with audience and completing the art work as an outcome. "Dance: A Creative Art Experience" by Margaret H'Doubler who was Anna Halprin's teacher and "Art as Experience" by John Dewey, which formed base of Margaret H'Doubler's artistic philosophy lie in the background of Anna Halprin's work. Anna Halprin's process-oriented art works are carefully practiced art type that uses John Dewey's aesthetics of art as experience as a touchstone, on which Margaret H'Doubler's dance philosophy is stably built. As a result, Anna Halprin's works possess value for criticism even if they are no normal stage performance that is presented on formalized stages. Anna Halprin's pieces have her own structured method of process-oriented creative work which is built on her robust aesthetic base and firm philosophy on dance. John Dewey is not widely known in South Korean dance society. However, he was a philosopher that provided theoretical base of American dance philosophy and is often called as a father of dance of higher education in the United States. John Dewey established the aesthetics of "art as experience" based on the philosophy involving art of experience, nature, and democracy. He argued that continuity of aesthetic experience is required for the normal process of life. He said that art should eventually return to the daily life of human being. This argument could be connected to the field of dance because John Dewey also experienced the movement of Alexander technique, which is well-known in Korean dance society. Along with Frederick Matthias Alexander, an Australian actor who developed the Alexander technique, John Dewey came to believe in the profound correlation between psychological and physical aspect of existence and argued that healthy spirit composes healthy body life. This argument was linked to Margaret H'Doubler's research on the connection between emotion and movement. Margaret H'Doubler who met John Dewey at Colombia University developed repulsion against the existing dualistic dance education, which distinguishes between body and mind, and tried to explain the relationship between mind and body by searching for the correlation between psychological and physical activities. She asserted that the combination of internal and external experience of human being creates the maximal meaning of art forms. H'Doubler's approach eventually developed into firm philosophy on her dance by emphasizing John Dewey's experience-oriented learning method, such as scientific method and training through repetitive and reflective muscle response. Radical experiment by Anna Halprin who received influence from H'Doubler and Dewey began from the 1950s and it ran counter to the conventional limitation of art of that time era. Challenges that were once new became mundane cliché after repetition and created new boundaries and impotent feeling, which gave Halprin another challenge. She made new attempt named "dance exploration" and argued the "necessity of structure" while guaranteeing a certain focus on a single factor of time, space, and power within extemporization. Based on these works, Halprin created her own work process called RSVP cycle. This study focuses on Score among them. Score was first used by John Cage as a concept of score for improvisation. Rather than a simple expression of moving line and motion, Halprin believed that score is the core of process-oriented dance process that makes participants' communication and dance as experience possible. Based on numerous impromptu and daily movements, Halprin made the participants experience a series of process that occur within a piece in a more detailed manner using a score that has basic proposition and clear purpose regarding the expressing things of the dance work. To examines these series of processes more realistically, four pieces of Anna Halprin, including , , , and , were analyzed in this paper from a critical viewpoint. John Dewey's theory, which asserts that art is one type of experience and all art develops within an interaction with its environment as an organic body, supports the value of criticism on Anna Halprin's work. By analyzing the process that she tried to let people experience and the aesthetic element of the pieces, the characteristics of her works could be summarized in four attributes: daily nature of art, natural characteristics, community spirit, and psychokinetic image. Focusing on Anna Halprin's process-oriented creative works, this study provides information on which type of goal and criteria the currently increasing participatory type of dance, art experience as a process, and process-oriented creative works should use. This study also ignites contemplation of the directing point of these works. This paper is expected to make people remember the fact that Halprin shared the process of making structured system in her own method and provided artistic value. Through more advanced form of process-oriented creative works, more and more people will be able to experience the good-natured value of art.
This study examines the recently increasing process-oriented dance works and contemplates on their goal and methodology. The paper also examines the reason of the recent hike of process-oriented dance works. Different from the performance-oriented works that focus on the outcome presented on stage, the process-oriented dance puts more stress on the process, such as emotional sharing, common goal as a community, or method of communication that occur during the work process. These days, people are living in a world that drastically evolves every day following the fourth industrial revolution. As a result, their emotional needs also changed from the past, which resembles the situation that took place while the art trend converted from modernism to postmodernism in the past. While main key words of the postmodernism era included war, discrimination, loss of humanity, and mental poverty, contemporary society has similar social issues. These days, humanity is lost as the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence emerged facing the era of the fourth industrial revolution and people are experiencing mental poverty coming from egoism and individualism. Postmodern dance, which was created by fighting against modernism, criticized and tried to alter the society. Postmodern dance abandoned advanced techniques and filled the stage with natural movements from daily activities. Dancers began to wear daily outfits, instead of dance costumes and performed in the nature or on street growing out of the existing theater stages. This kind of change is currently occurring in Korean society. This paper focused on the dance works by Anna Halprin who made a tremendous contribution to the formation of postmodern dance with a great influence on postmodern dancers before the postmodern dance began to develop in earnest. Many people in Korea paid attention to the therapeutic value of Anna Halprin's work, rather than artistic value. There are only a few relevant research materials as of now and they are mainly from a therapeutic aspect. However, her work has sufficient artistic value as a model of process-oriented art works, which are currently growing in Korea. Anna Halprin focused more on artistic value than aesthetic value of art. She increased the weight of production process and paid close attention to what happens while meeting with audience and completing the art work as an outcome. "Dance: A Creative Art Experience" by Margaret H'Doubler who was Anna Halprin's teacher and "Art as Experience" by John Dewey, which formed base of Margaret H'Doubler's artistic philosophy lie in the background of Anna Halprin's work. Anna Halprin's process-oriented art works are carefully practiced art type that uses John Dewey's aesthetics of art as experience as a touchstone, on which Margaret H'Doubler's dance philosophy is stably built. As a result, Anna Halprin's works possess value for criticism even if they are no normal stage performance that is presented on formalized stages. Anna Halprin's pieces have her own structured method of process-oriented creative work which is built on her robust aesthetic base and firm philosophy on dance. John Dewey is not widely known in South Korean dance society. However, he was a philosopher that provided theoretical base of American dance philosophy and is often called as a father of dance of higher education in the United States. John Dewey established the aesthetics of "art as experience" based on the philosophy involving art of experience, nature, and democracy. He argued that continuity of aesthetic experience is required for the normal process of life. He said that art should eventually return to the daily life of human being. This argument could be connected to the field of dance because John Dewey also experienced the movement of Alexander technique, which is well-known in Korean dance society. Along with Frederick Matthias Alexander, an Australian actor who developed the Alexander technique, John Dewey came to believe in the profound correlation between psychological and physical aspect of existence and argued that healthy spirit composes healthy body life. This argument was linked to Margaret H'Doubler's research on the connection between emotion and movement. Margaret H'Doubler who met John Dewey at Colombia University developed repulsion against the existing dualistic dance education, which distinguishes between body and mind, and tried to explain the relationship between mind and body by searching for the correlation between psychological and physical activities. She asserted that the combination of internal and external experience of human being creates the maximal meaning of art forms. H'Doubler's approach eventually developed into firm philosophy on her dance by emphasizing John Dewey's experience-oriented learning method, such as scientific method and training through repetitive and reflective muscle response. Radical experiment by Anna Halprin who received influence from H'Doubler and Dewey began from the 1950s and it ran counter to the conventional limitation of art of that time era. Challenges that were once new became mundane cliché after repetition and created new boundaries and impotent feeling, which gave Halprin another challenge. She made new attempt named "dance exploration" and argued the "necessity of structure" while guaranteeing a certain focus on a single factor of time, space, and power within extemporization. Based on these works, Halprin created her own work process called RSVP cycle. This study focuses on Score among them. Score was first used by John Cage as a concept of score for improvisation. Rather than a simple expression of moving line and motion, Halprin believed that score is the core of process-oriented dance process that makes participants' communication and dance as experience possible. Based on numerous impromptu and daily movements, Halprin made the participants experience a series of process that occur within a piece in a more detailed manner using a score that has basic proposition and clear purpose regarding the expressing things of the dance work. To examines these series of processes more realistically, four pieces of Anna Halprin, including , , , and , were analyzed in this paper from a critical viewpoint. John Dewey's theory, which asserts that art is one type of experience and all art develops within an interaction with its environment as an organic body, supports the value of criticism on Anna Halprin's work. By analyzing the process that she tried to let people experience and the aesthetic element of the pieces, the characteristics of her works could be summarized in four attributes: daily nature of art, natural characteristics, community spirit, and psychokinetic image. Focusing on Anna Halprin's process-oriented creative works, this study provides information on which type of goal and criteria the currently increasing participatory type of dance, art experience as a process, and process-oriented creative works should use. This study also ignites contemplation of the directing point of these works. This paper is expected to make people remember the fact that Halprin shared the process of making structured system in her own method and provided artistic value. Through more advanced form of process-oriented creative works, more and more people will be able to experience the good-natured value of art.
URI
https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/123332http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000437413
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GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > DANCE(무용학과) > Theses (Ph.D.)
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