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Risk assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected in sanitary pads

Title
Risk assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected in sanitary pads
Author
배옥남
Keywords
Volatile organic compound (VOC); sanitary pads; margin of exposure (MOE); risk assessment
Issue Date
2019-11
Publisher
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
Citation
JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART A-CURRENT ISSUES, v. 82, No. 11, Page. 678-695
Abstract
Disposable sanitary pads are a necessity for women's health, but safety concerns regarding the use of these products have created anxiety. The aim of this study was to conduct a risk assessment of 74 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which were expected to be contained within sanitary pads. Of the 74 VOCs, 50 were found in sanitary pads retailed in Korea at concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 3548.09 mu g/pad. In order to undertake a risk assessment of the VOCs, the toxicological database of these compounds in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), National Toxicology Program (NTP) and World Health Organization (WHO) was searched. Ethanol was found to exhibit the highest reference dose (RfD) while 1,2-dibromo-3-chloro-propane displayed the lowest RfD. Consequently, a worst-case exposure scenario was applied in this study. It was assumed that there was the use of 7.5 sanitary napkins/day for 7 days/month. In the case of panty liners or overnight sanitary napkins, the utilization of 90 panty liners/month or 21 overnight sanitary napkins/month was assumed, respectively. In addition, 43 kg, the body weight of 12 to 13-year-old young women, and 100% VOCs skin absorption were employed for risk assessment. The systemic exposure dose (SED) values were calculated ranging from 1.74 (1,1,2-trichloroethane) ng/kg/day to 144.4 (ethanol, absolute) mu g/kg/day. Uncertainty factors (UFs) were applied ranging from 10 to 100,000 in accordance with the robustness of animal or human experiments. The margin of exposure (MOE) of 34 VOCs was more than 1 (acceptable MOE ˃ 1). Applicable carcinogenic references reported that the cancer risk of five VOCs was below 10(-6). Based on our findings, evidence indicates that the non-cancer and cancer risks associated with VOCs detected in sanitary pads currently used in South Korea do not pose an adverse health risk in women.
URI
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15287394.2019.1642607https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/122188
ISSN
1528-7394; 1087-2620
DOI
10.1080/15287394.2019.1642607
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF PHARMACY[E](약학대학) > PHARMACY(약학과) > Articles
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