This paper examines the liberalization process of gas market and exports in Russia during 2009-2017. The analysis of the gas liberalization process in Russia demonstrates that gas liberalization began with the break-up of the dual pricing system. This research is distinct from previous research in this field in the sense that each value chain in the gas sector such as production, transportation, and exports is analyzed. We find that the introduction of competition into the Russian gas sector has been undertaken in several consecutive steps. In 2005-2008, the Russian government spearheaded the reform under the perception of a crisis of production decline of Gazprom. With the decline of Gazprom’s share in the Russian market (from 85% in 2007 to 73% in 2013)1 and the increase in the market share of independent gas companies (15% in 2008 to 27% in 2013), Russia had allowed independent gas companies to compete equally with its gas monopoly, Gazprom.