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A Ternary Hybrid EEG-NIRS Brain-Computer Interface for the Classification of Brain Activation Patterns during Mental Arithmetic, Motor Imagery, and Idle State

Title
A Ternary Hybrid EEG-NIRS Brain-Computer Interface for the Classification of Brain Activation Patterns during Mental Arithmetic, Motor Imagery, and Idle State
Author
신재영
Keywords
brain-computer interface; mental arithmetic; motor imagery; electroencephalography (EEG); near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS); pattern recognition
Issue Date
2018-02
Publisher
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Citation
FRONTIERS IN NEUROINFORMATICS, v. 12, Article no. 5
Abstract
The performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) can be enhanced by simultaneously using two or more modalities to record brain activity, which is generally referred to as a hybrid BCI. To date, many BCI researchers have tried to implement a hybrid BCI system by combining electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to improve the overall accuracy of binary classification. However, since hybrid EEG-NIRS BCI, which will be denoted by hBCI in this paper, has not been applied to ternary classification problems, paradigms and classification strategies appropriate for ternary classification using hBCI are not well investigated. Here we propose the use of an hBCI for the classification of three brain activation patterns elicited by mental arithmetic, motor imagery, and idle state, with the aim to elevate the information transfer rate (ITR) of hBCI by increasing the number of classes while minimizing the loss of accuracy. EEG electrodes were placed over the prefrontal cortex and the central cortex, and NIRS optodes were placed only on the forehead. The ternary classification problem was decomposed into three binary classification problems using the "one-versus-one" (OVO) classification strategy to apply the filter-bank common spatial patterns filter to EEG data. A 10 x 10-fold cross validation was performed using shrinkage linear discriminant analysis (sLDA) to evaluate the average classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI when the meta-classification method was adopted to enhance classification accuracy. The ternary classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI were 76.1 +/- 12.8, 64.1 +/- 9.7, and 82.2 +/- 10.2%, respectively. The classification accuracy of the proposed hBCI was thus significantly higher than those of the other BCIs (p < 0.005). The average ITR for the proposed hBCI was calculated to be 4.70 +/- 1.92 bits/minute, which was 34.3% higher than that reported for a previous binary hBCI study.
URI
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fninf.2018.00005/fullhttps://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/117434
ISSN
1662-5196
DOI
10.3389/fninf.2018.00005
Appears in Collections:
RESEARCH INSTITUTE[S](부설연구소) > INSTITUTE OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING(의공학연구소) > Articles
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