For technical applications enzymes are usually immobilizaed to a large variety of
supports. Also, non-denaturing immobilization of proteins is an important issue
in protein chip applications. Proteins functionality usually decreases when it is
immobilized on silid surface because the lertiary structures of a protein could be
distorted by immobilization. In order to solve this problem, many researchers have
focused on using `spacer arms` and exploiting `oriented` immobilization.