INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, v. 6, No. 1, Page. 87-96
Application of the extended Grunwald-Winstein equation to solvolyses of n‑propyl chloroformate in a variety of pure and binary solvents indicates an addition-elimination pathway in the majority of the solvents but an ionization pathway in the solvents of highest ionizing power and lowest nucleophilicity. For methanolysis, a solvent deuterium isotope effect of 2.17 is compatible with the incorporation of general-base catalysis into the substitution process. Activation parameters are consistent with the duality of mechanism. Very modest positive salt effects are observed on adding chloride or bromide salts to the ethanolysis.