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문학을 활용한 무용작품 창작 메커니즘 연구

문학을 활용한 무용작품 창작 메커니즘 연구
Other Titles
Study on the mechanism of dance creation literature : 「Blood Wedding」and 「Ah-q zhengzhuan」
Alternative Author(s)
손관중 교수님
Issue Date
2019. 8
무용과 문학은 애초에 하나의 모태에서 태어난 예술 장르이다. 제천행사에서 춤을 추고 노래를 부르며 시작된 시와 음악, 무용은 원시종합예술의 시대엔 한 형제였던 것이다. 그 후 문자를 매개로 하는 문학과 육체를 매개로 하는 무용은 오랫동안 분화된 채 발전해 왔다. 현대에 이르러 무용과 문학은 다시 활발한 교류를 하고 있다. 문명의 발달로 인한 다양한 장르간의 소통과 포스터모더니즘의 ‘탈장르화’의 영향으로 장르간의 경계가 모호해지고, 공연 대본의 필요성이란 현실적 조건들에 의해 무용과 문학은 서로 소통하며 융합하고 있다. 이러한 배경들은 문학으로부터 받은 영감을 무용 컨텐츠로 변형하여 재창작하는 무용가들이 적지 않게 등장하였다. 본 연구는 그중에서도 김복희와 홍승엽에 주목하여 문학 컨텐츠를 활용한 무용창작 메커니즘에 대하여 고찰하고자 한다. 그 중에서도 스페인 작가 F.G. 로르카의 희곡 『피의 결혼』을 변형한 김복희의 무용 「피의 결혼」과 중국의 작가 루쉰의 소설 『아Q정전』을 변형한 홍승엽의 무용 「아Q」를 통하여 두 장르의 접근 방법론을 고찰한다. 문학의 이해를 돕기 위해 문학의 개념과 종류 및 기능, 그리고 특징들을 살펴본다. 다음은 문학과 무용의 기원과 발전과정, 그리고 융합에 이르는 경로를 개괄하는데 여기서 문학은 시, 소설, 희곡에 한정한다. 문학작품에 대한 무용컨텐츠의 변형 방법론으로 본 연구에서는 영화 각색의 방법론을 차용하였다. 각색은 충실한 각색과 다원적 각색, 그리고 변형적 각색의 세 가지로 나누었다. 김복희와 홍승엽은 대조적인 스타일의 각색 방법을 통해 문학을 무용으로 재창작하였다. 「피의 결혼」은 충실한 각색을, 「아Q」는 변형적 방법을 채택하고 있는데, 두 작품의 대비를 통해 문학작품 변형의 메커니즘을 비교, 분석한다. 한편 「피의 결혼」과 「아Q」, 두 작품 모두 문학작품의 주요장면과 무용의 주요장면을 도표를 이용해 상호비교함으로써 공통점과 차이점을 쉽게 비교할 수 있도록 한다. 무용과 문학의 원활한 접근방법을 위해 문학창작방법을 소개한다. 무용가가 직접 문학작품을 쓸 수 있다면 가장 이상적일 것이나 굳이 창작을 하지 않아도 그 방법론을 이해한다면 각색에 큰 도움이 될 것이다. 글을 쓰는 사람들을 작가라고 한다. 그러나 최근 들어 작가라는 명칭은 단지 글을 쓰는 사람뿐만 아니라 여러 분야로 확대되고 있다. 장르는 달라도 이들 작가라는 이름엔 공통적인 의미가 들어있다. 작품을 만들어내는, 즉 창작하는 사람이란 의미이다. 무용도 마찬가지이다. 무용 역시 치열한 작가정신을 가진 예술가, 즉 무용작가가 요구되는 예술이다. 자신만의 독창적 세계를 가지고 무용을 창작해내는 예술가에 대한 요구, 무용이 문학과 더 밀접한 관계를 가져야 하는 이유이기도 할 것이다.
The French philosopher Merleau-Ponty said that ‘one culture hears its own echo among other cultures and wakes on its own’. In other words, the culture of mankind has developed through interaction and it is the most symbolic form of discourse in interculturalism. However, even aside from interculturalism, dance and literature are art genres born from the same matrix. Poetry, music, and dance that began with dance and song at Jecheon events were all brothers to each other during the age of primitive synthetic art. Afterwards, literature, which uses text as a medium, and dance, which uses the body as a medium, developed in a state of division for a long time. In modern times, dance and literature are once again actively interacting. The boundaries between genres are becoming vague duㅣe to influence that comes from the ‘genre shedding’ of postmodernism and communication among various genres and dance and literature are communicating and fusing because of the realistic conditions of the need for performance scripts. Because of such backgrounds, many dancers have taken inspiration they receive from literature and transformed and reproduced it into dance contents. In particular, this study attempts to give focus to Kim Bokhee and Hong Sungyop to study dance-making mechanisms. Of these, it studies the access methodologies of two genres through Kim Bokhee’s dance 「Blood Wedding」, which is a transformation of Spain writer Federico Garcia Lorca’s play 『Blood Wedding』, and Hong Sungyop’s dance「AhQ」, which is a transformation of Chinese writer Lu Xun’s 『The True Story of Ah Q』. First, it observes the concepts, types, functions, and characteristics of literature to aid in the understanding of literature. Then, it summarizes the origin and developmental processes of literature and dance to the path that led to their fusion and here, literature is limited to poetry, novels, and plays. As a modifying methodology of dance contents regarding literary pieces, this study borrowed movie adaptation methodologies. Adaptation can be divided into faithful adaptation, pluralistic adaptation, and transformative adaptation. Kim Bokhee and Hong Sungyop recreated literature into dance through adaptation methods of contrasting styles. 「Blood Wedding」 chose faithful adaptation and 「AhQ」 chose transformative adaptation and the mechanisms of the literature piece variations were compared and analyzed through comparisons of the two pieces. Kim Bokhee transformed many literary pieces into dance and 「Blood Wedding」 faithfully follows the story of the original work. However, it grafts Korean wedding and funeral culture into the faithful original story and introduces pluralistic elements, uses Korean style props, and introduces dancing steps of Korean dance to narrow the gap with Korean audiences. In particular, events in the original story end with death but the dance is combined with concepts of reincarnation from Buddhism so death is presented as a process that is experienced to be born again and this can be interpreted as the decisive difference between world views of the East and the West. Hong Sungyop’s 「AhQ」 only borrows the motif of ‘foolishness’ from the original novel and colorfully expresses the foolishness of humans. The novel is based on the historical event of the Xinhai Revolution in China, and while the narrative progresses with the protagonist Ah Q as a symbolic figure who faces the situation in China at that time, the dance presents many Ah Qs and ‘foolishness’ is not limited to the figure of Ah Q or problems of China at that time, but is confirmed as a universally existential problem of man. However, Hong Sungyop also introduces pluralistic elements by borrowing the use of rap for the satirical elements of the original piece and for the last scene of the novel. On one hand, the main scenes of the literary pieces and the dances of 「Blood Wedding」 and 「AhQ」 can be mutually compared using a chart and their common features and differences can easily be compared. Lastly, this thesis introduces a literature composition method for smooth access to dance and literature. While it would be ideal if dancers could write their own literary pieces, an understanding of this methodology will greatly help in their adaptations even if they do not write their own compositions. People who write are called writers. Recently, that reference is being expanded to various fields to refer to people who write poetry, novels, or plays. Even if genres differ, their names as writers contain a common meaning. That meaning refers to people who compose pieces or in other words, people who create. It is the same with dance. Dance is also an art that demands artists with a fierce composing spirit or in other words, dance composers. The demand for artists who create their own dance with their own unique world is another reason why dance must have a close relationship with literature. It is hoped that the mutual interaction between literature and dance will lead to the birth of more creative dance composers and researchers and that this study will provide a path for this as base material.
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GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > DANCE(무용학과) > Theses (Ph.D.)
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