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백대웅 국악관현악 작품 연구

Title
백대웅 국악관현악 작품 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Korean Music Orchestra Compositions of Baek Dae-woong
Author
박상현
Alternative Author(s)
Park Sang Hyun
Advisor(s)
안성우
Issue Date
2019. 8
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
작곡가 백대웅은 2011년에 생을 마칠 때까지 40여곡의 작품 중 20여 곡의 관현악곡을 작곡하였다. 특히, 전통움악의 선율구조를 중심으로 작품을 만들고, 그것을 통해 자신의 이론을 정립했기 때문에 그 특징이 관현악곡에 잘 나타나 있었다. 백대웅은 본인이 작곡한 작품 가운데 대표적인 것을 모아 󰡔백대웅 작곡집 I󰡕, 󰡔백대웅 작곡집 II󰡕에 담아 출판하였다. 그럼에도 불구하고, 국악관현악이 활성화된 이후 근 30여 년간 백대웅의 국악관현악 작품을 분석한 논문은 6편에 불과하고, 그 논문에서도 정확한 분석을 보인 논문은 많지 않았다. 본 연구는 이러한 문제의식에서 시작하여, 백대웅의 감수로 출판된 󰡔백대웅 작곡집 I󰡕, 󰡔백대웅 작곡집 II󰡕에 국악관현악 작품 총 5곡을 선정하여, 악곡의 구조 및 분석을 통해서 이를 바탕으로 백대웅 국악관현악 작품의 특징을 정리하고자 한다.; The late composer Baek Dae-ung had composed twenty orchestral pieces among his forty compositions until he died in 2011. The characteristics of his musical works are well reflected in his orchestral pieces because Baek not only took melodic structures from traditional music but also established his own composition theory based on those melodic structures. Two books compiling his representative music works and their scores are Baek Dae-ung Composition Collection I and Baek Dae-ung Composition Collection I I . However, ever since gugak orchestra has been developed for nearly thirty years, only six academic writings are published related to Baek’s orchestral music. Even worse, only some of them contain accurate analysis. This dissertation, in this regard, closely examines and analysis five pieces of Baek’s orchestra music listed in his books. By analyzing musical structures, this dissertation aims to figure and outline the characteristics of his orchestra music. Chapter Two introduces the life of Baek as an artist and overviews all of his compositions by looking at his academic background and professional career. Not only college education but also his research on pansori and minyo are discussed. In addition, his social networking as well as the background on establishing his own theory are included. The overview gives brief introduction on more than fifty five musical works from solo and duet pieces to chamber, concerto, and even dand music. Chapter Three mainly discusses the five selected orchestra pieces by introducing the music and analyzing their musical structures. The first piece "Hoehonnyereul wihan sinawi" was created as Baek enlarges the rhythmic elements on the basis of the newly composed theme melody. One variated melody becomes a connection to another variated melody as those two cross over. Moreover, the transposition among the related keys made the music processing in various melodies, revealing the composer’s style freely changing the modes. The rhythmic variation is harmonizing with the theme melody as the basic 4/ of triple eighth note group, 3+3+3+3, mutates to the duple and triple combination of 3+2+2+2+3. The second piece, the gugak orchestra for sanjo "Yongsang", shows a variety of melodic variations of theme melody through rhythmic changes and transpositions. Especially, many transpositions occur highlighting the feature of sanjo music. More ujo mode is used than the gyemyeonjo mode, and gyemyeonjo always moves to ujo whe conclude the music in cadence. The music begins with slow jinyangjo, but its opening drum beat, gideok kung, gives a mood of court music which makes this music unique. The jungjungmori has a new rhythmic part as the basic triple rhythm is split to duple and triple beat of 2+2+2+3+3. In the third piece "Namdo Arirang" for Orchestra Asia demonstrates Baek’s unique technique creating music by combining dissimilar theme melodies excerpt from two different music. The melodies taken from "Miryang Arirang" and "Jindo Arirang" are variated and refreshed with the use of staccato and tie, while at the same time the melodies are naturally connected with the use of different tonic. The 6/4 divided rhythm brings cheerful mood and the orchestration for instrumental cross over or overlapping made the music more rhythmical and vivid. The fourth piece "Dialogue between South and North" tries to harmonize two different melodies taken from “Neokduri garak” and “Gilkkonaengi” by utilizing key signatures. A theme melody in F tonic gyemyeonjo mode is accompanied and paired with counter melody in f minor mode harmony, and thus it is noticeable that the melody in gyemyeonjo and in chromatic(minor) scale melody mingles. Baek’s effort to combine different melodies is definitely seen in the rhythmic combination of 10+11 structure and its variation. The fifth piece "Yanbian Pastoral Song" took theme melodies from vocal music "Yanbian Pastoral Song". The tune for orchestra, however, is very much differentiated through expanding the tune using the Yanbian yanggeum integrated with divided rhythms. An impressive part comes from the harmony and balance generated from the haegeum and low-pitch haegeum which support the main melody with the melodies heading opposite direction in chromatic scale. The melodic variation in eotmori part with consecutive mode change is one of the Baek’s composition technique worth paying attention. In addition, the rhythms are split in various patterns throughout the music, and the poly rhythms maximized the tension in melodic climax. The analysis of each piece includes description on Baek’s basic technique and my own interpretation on Baek’s conduction technique. Since most of the melodies in Baek’s music are lyrical and soft, his conduction can not help but become smooth. Baek unique baton skill resulted from the frequent rhythmic split in his music deserves attention. Even though his technique is not specified or defined his own, I hope that it can be help learners of gugak orchestra conduction. The Chapter Four outlined the characteristic of Baek’s gugak orchestra music in perspectives of two different point: theme melodic application and composition technical application. First, theme melodic application is divided to two types that are traditional melody and created melody. The traditional melody type is again divided into folksong excerpt and traditional music. The case using traditional melody excerpt from folksong is "Namdo Arirang" containing melodies of "Miryang Arirang" and "Jindo Arirang", and Baek created revelation melody by mingling them together. "Yanbian Pastoral Song" takes melody from An Guk-min’s song "Yanbian Pastoral Song" and turned into a unique revelation melody touched by Baek’s technique that variates the main melody by highlighting some part, changing orchestration, and using hemiola and poly rhythms. Finally, the transposition shows the process of finalizing the created melody to be unique revelation melody. The case using traditional music theme is "Dialogue between South and North" which takes melody from Bukcheong lion dance and Jindo Island vocal music. Set as symbolic meaning, “Neokduri garak” and “Gilkkonaengi” also represent North and South. The two different music is combined and connected smoothly with the melodic and rhythmic change, and the used of multiple keys and tonal mode. Finally, these multiple process let the revelation melody in 10+11 structure be born. The application of created melody is seen in "Hoehonnyereul wihan sinawi", in which preceding phrase and escorting phrase suggested as the theme melody develop throughout the music. Also, the development creates revelation melody and it finally exposes at the climax of the music. Second, the composition technical application can be explained in two types that are key change and rhythmic variation. Rhythmic variation again has example of split rhythm and poly rhythm. The transposition in "Hoehonnyereul wihan sinawi", "Yongsang", "Dialogue between South and North" is explained with different modal use. On the other hand, "Dialogue between South and North" is simply a key change since the melody stays in minor(gyemyeonjo) mode, and "Yanbian Pastoral Song" is the same since the melody sometimes goes against the modal system. Most of the time, the transposition or modal changes happen within the related keys, especially in minor third relative key from ujo to gyemyeonjo or vice verse. Twenty one and twenty modal changes occur in "Hoehonnyereul wihan sinawi" and "Yongsang", but on the contrary only four changes happen in "Namdo Arirang" and "Dialogue between South and North" . In "Yanbian Pastoral Song", the transposition in perfect fourth relationship was made three times. Some changes are made out of relative key relations, but maintain the minor third relationship all the time. The patterns of split rhythm variation vary by basic rhythm and music piece. 4/ and 12/8 were most often variated in five different patterns, and appear evenly in gutgeori and jajinmori of "Hoehonnyereul wihan sinawi" and jungjungmori and jajinmori of "Yongsang", and in the first and third section of "Yanbian Pastoral Song". 10/8 was divided into different patterns in the third section of "Dialogue between South and North" , and the second section of "Yanbian Pastoral Song". The diverse variation sounds repeatedly especially when the music is in the solo and duet part. 6/4 is divided in the third movement of "Namdo Arirang" with orchestration that lets the different instruments repeat the variations. "Namdo Arirang" and "Dialogue between South and North" intensionally put emphasis on identical rhythmic patterns along with 10/8 and 10+11 complicated patterns. In this regard, it seems that the composer did not use poly rhythms in the music. However, in "Hoehonnyereul wihan sinawi", the unit beat is divided into duple and triple beat even in one same measure, but the same pattern is repeated one more time so that the division sounds stable. "Yongsang" is different from "Hoehonnyereul wihan sinawi" in terms of dual unit beat, and, instead, poly rhythm is used as a means of melodic progress as it is combined with theme melody in overall jungjungmori part. In "Yanbian Pastoral Song", the composer contrasts the duple and triple beats on purpose to stress distinct poly rhythms by letting each instrument play different variation altering duple and triple or triple and duple. My research closely examined Baek Dae-ung’s gugak orchestra music by analyzing its melody and rhythms, and figured out not only its characteristic but also Baek’s conduction techniques. As his works demonstrate, it seems that Baek endeavors to express gugak’s distinctiveness which can while at the same time adapt and applicable to changing gugak. His composition technique as time flows also faced transition. For example "Hoehonnyereul wihan sinawi" composed in 1986 is very melody focused, meanwhile, "Yanbian Pastoral Song" composed in 2004 is rather harmonic and the melody is used as a means of one of composition technique. A newly created term “revelation melody”(balhyeon seonyul) was used to refer to Baek’s own melody created on the basis of traditional melody, and I insist that this revelation melody his music distinguising and valuable. I hope that this dissertation contribute to the development of gugak orchestra, and I expect that the research can help understanding Baek’s orchestra music and interpreting the performance.
URI
https://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/109705http://hanyang.dcollection.net/common/orgView/200000436119
Appears in Collections:
GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > KOREAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC(국악학과) > Theses (Ph.D.)
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