A social marketing approach to promoting healthful eating and physical activity in low-income and ethnically diverse schools
- A social marketing approach to promoting healthful eating and physical activity in low-income and ethnically diverse schools
- Healthy eating; school interventions; social marketing; underserved populations; USA; QUESTIONNAIRE; INTERVENTIONS; DISPARITIES; CAMPAIGN; BEHAVIOR; OBESITY; POLICY
- Issue Date
- SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD
- HEALTH EDUCATION JOURNAL, v. 74, No. 3, Page. 351-363
To evaluate the short-term outcome of the social marketing approach used in Project FIT, we developed a school- and community-based programme for promoting healthful eating and physical activity in kindergarten to 5th-grade children and their parents.
A 2-year quasi-experiment for children and two cross-sectional surveys for parents.
We included low-income, urban and ethnically diverse elementary schools and neighbourhoods in Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA.
Students in 3rd, 4th and 5th grades were surveyed in four intervention schools (four time points, N with at least one time point measurement = 664) and two control schools (N = 195). Parents of intervention students were surveyed at baseline (N = 286) and follow-up (N = 215). Key dependent variables included self-reported healthful eating and physical activity. Key independent variables included awareness, knowledge, motivation and attitudes towards Project FIT.
We analysed generalised linear mixed models and generalised estimation equation (GEE) models for the student surveys and mean difference tests and logistic regressions for the parent surveys.
The proportion of students who were aware of Project FIT increased over time. GEE models showed that selected key dependent variables were significantly associated with self-reported healthful eating and physical activity. Parents were more aware of Project FIT at follow-up compared to the baseline survey, and their attitudes were significantly associated with increased healthful eating (vegetables, fruits and whole grains).
The social marketing approach utilised in Project FIT contributed to increasing awareness and achieving behavioural goals of healthful eating and physical activity
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