외상후 스트레스 장애에 대한 심리치료 효과 개관 : 재난 생존자를 중심으로
- 외상후 스트레스 장애에 대한 심리치료 효과 개관 : 재난 생존자를 중심으로
- Other Titles
- Review of Psychological Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder : Focus on Survivors of Disaster
- 외상후 스트레스 장애; 재난; 인지행동치료; 노출 치료; EMDR; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Disaster; Cognitive behavior therapy; Exposure therapy; Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.
- Issue Date
- 대한불안의학회지, v. 12, NO. 2, Page. 69-78
- Objective : Disaster causes psychological distress to a large number of people in a short period of time, by both direct and indirect exposure to traumatic events embedded in various realms of disaster experience.
Optimal, well-planned treatment interventions should follow from the early acute period to recovery phase, extending up to several months later. In this context, there is an increasing need for systemic review to gain comprehensive insights for disaster interventions. These need to be added to public policy, and for the prevention and treatment of disaster-related psychopathology. Here, we review the published studies on psychological interventions for disaster-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
Methods : Specific psychological interventions regarded as effective treatments for have been selected for this review, such as CBT (Cognitive-Behavior Therapy), Exposure Therapy, EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing), SIT (Stress Inoculation Therapy) and Psychoeducation. In addition, natural disasters, industrial disasters, and accidents involving aircraft and ships were also categorized as disasters, along with war and combat trauma.
Results : Cognitive behavior therapy and exposure therapy had the strongest research support for effectiveness, and could be considered as the first-choice treatment for disaster-related PTSD. The second line of treatment is EMDR, although this treatment modality has the advantage of reaching certain treatment improvements in fewer sessions. However, the effects of SIT and psychoeducation to the survivors of disasters, remains unclear at this point. Additionally, we propose the possibilities of using virtual reality component and imagery rescripting as modified forms of traditional cognitive behavior therapy and exposure therapy.
Conclusion : Cognitive behavior therapy and exposure therapy, deemed effective treatments for various trauma, are considered to be effective for survivors from disasters. However, the efficacy of other interventions has not yet been examined methodologically in well-designed studies, such as randomized controlled trials. In particular, future empirical studies are needed, since it is difficult to conclude that psychological interventions have similar effects on different types of disasters. (Anxiety and Mood 2016;12(2):69-78)
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