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Approaches to the Management of Spontaneous Isolated Visceral Artery Dissection

Approaches to the Management of Spontaneous Isolated Visceral Artery Dissection
Issue Date
Annals of Vascular Surgery, 2013, 27(6), P.750-757
Background: Spontaneous isolated celiac and superior mesenteric artery dissection without aortic dissection is a rare disease. Recently, an increasing number of cases have been diagnosed and the prognosis has improved significantly because of technical progress in computed tomography (CT). However, management approaches vary from conservative treatment or endovascular repair to open surgery. This study analyzed the clinical findings of patients with spontaneous visceral artery dissection, and attempted to illuminate how to manage these cases. Materials and Methods: From June 2005 to February 2012, a total of 17 patients were diagnosed with spontaneous isolated visceral artery dissection in the authors' hospital (4 celiac arteries, 12 superior mesenteric arteries, and 1 inferior mesenteric artery) based on CT findings. The clinical characteristics, Sakamoto's classification, imaging appearance, and early outcomes of these patients were retrospectively compared. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.47 +/- 8.65 years (range, 39-73 years) and the mean follow-up period was 35.18 +/- 25.55 months (range, 1-79 months). Fifteen (88.2%) patients had abdominal pain and no ischemic changes of the bowel. The dissections initiated at a mean distance of 13.04 +/- 10.41 mm (range, 4.00-43.39 mm) from the origin of the artery, with a mean length of 53.39 +/- 28.06 mm (range, 10.00-108.46 mm). There were 4 type I (23.8%), 1 type II (5.9%), 9 type III (52.9%), and 3 type IV (17.6%) dissections according to Sakamoto's classification. Treatments included observation without anticoagulation treatment in 3 patients (17.6%), anticoagulation treatment in 12 (70.6%), and endovascular stenting in 2 (11.8%). The disease stabilized in all patients during follow-up. Conclusions: If bowel perfusion is not compromised and patency is well compensated by collateral circulation, most patients can be managed conservatively with or without anticoagulation treatment. However, patients must be monitored closely and followed up regularly for early detection of progression.
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