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Melodic Contour Identification Reflects the Cognitive Threshold of Aging

Title
Melodic Contour Identification Reflects the Cognitive Threshold of Aging
Author
류호경
Keywords
contour identification task; melodic contours; cognitive decline; aging; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; hemodynamic responses
Issue Date
2016-06
Publisher
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Citation
FRONTIERS IN AGING NEUROSCIENCE, v. 8, Page. 1-11
Abstract
Cognitive decline is a natural phenomenon of aging. Although there exists a consensus that sensitivity to acoustic features of music is associated with such decline, no solid evidence has yet shown that structural elements and contexts of music explain this loss of cognitive performance. This study examined the extent and the type of cognitive decline that is related to the contour identification task (CIT) using tones with different pitches (i.e., melodic contours). Both younger and older adult groups participated in the CIT given in three listening conditions (i.e., focused, selective, and alternating). Behavioral data (accuracy and response times) and hemodynamic reactions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Our findings showed cognitive declines in the older adult group but with a subtle difference from the younger adult group. The accuracy of the melodic CITs given in the target-like distraction task (CIT2) was significantly lower than that in the environmental noise (CIT1) condition in the older adult group, indicating that CIT2 may be a benchmark test for age-specific cognitive decline. The fNIRS findings also agreed with this interpretation, revealing significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) concentration in the younger (p < 0.05 for Delta pre - on task; p < 0.01 for Delta on - post task) rather than the older adult group (n.s for Delta pre - on task; rho for Delta on - post task). We further concluded that the oxyHb difference was present in the brain regions near the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these findings suggest that CIT2 (i.e., the melodic contour task in the target-like distraction) is an optimized task that could indicate the degree and type of age-related cognitive decline.
URI
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00134/fullhttp://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/72047
ISSN
1663-4365
DOI
10.3389/fnagi.2016.00134
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GRADUATE SCHOOL OF TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION MANAGEMENT[S](기술경영전문대학원) > TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT(기술경영학과) > Articles
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