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한국 대기업의 노사갈등 외부화 기제에 관한 연구

Title
한국 대기업의 노사갈등 외부화 기제에 관한 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Externalization Mechanism of Industrial Relations Conflict in Korean Large Companies
Author
이상민
Keywords
노사관계 경쟁력; 사회적 협의; 원하청관계; 이중노동시장; organization innovation
Issue Date
2014-03
Publisher
한국인사조직학회. / Korean Academy Of Management.
Citation
한국인사·조직학회, Vol.22 No.1 [2014], pp. 175-202(28쪽)
Abstract
본 연구는 대내외적으로 노사갈등 수준이 매우 높다고 평가받고 있는 한국 대기업이 세계 시장에서 시장점유율을 높이고 경쟁력을 확보하기 위해 어떠한 노사관계 메커니즘을 작동시키고 있는지 분석하고자 하였다. 이를 위해 사례연구를 중심으로 한 질적 연구방법론을 채택하였다. 연구 결과로, 한국 대기업은 내부의 임금 및 고용과 관련한 노사갈등을 외부화하는 노사관계 전략을 채택하였고 이러한 노사갈등을 외부화하는 메커니즘을 형성할 수 있었기에 세계 시장에서 높은 경쟁력을 확보할 수 있었다는 점을 밝혔다. 한국 대기업은 노사갈등을 외부화하는 메커니즘을 국가수준, 산업수준, 그리고 기업수준에서 구축하였다. 우선 국가 수준에서 사회적 대화 체제를 활용하여 노동유연성 관련 노사갈등을 외부화 하였다. 그리고 산업수준에서 우월적 지위에 있는 원하청 관계를 활용하여 가격 절감과 품질 제고 비용을 하청기업에 전가하였고, 기업수준에서 정규직과 비정규직 간에 이중노동시장을 형성하고 정규직의 고용과 임금 안정에 소요되는 비용을 비정규직에 전가하도록 하는 노사관계 메커니즘을 형성하였던 것이다. 이러한 노사관계 기제 형성을 통해 한국 대기업은 2010년 중반까지 세계 시장에서 경쟁력을 확보하는 데에 성공한 것으로 평가되지만 그 지속가능성은 불투명한 것으로 보인다. 이는 높은 수준의 노동시장 유연성을 보완하기에 한국의 사회안전망은 매우 열악하다는 점, 중소기업의 막대한 희생을 요구하는 원하청 관계에 대한 사회적 비판이 높은 반면 이러한 관계에서 중소기업의 품질경쟁력 지원이 어렵다는 점, 그리고 정규직과 비정규직간 차별과 갈등이 높아지면서 생산현장의 혁신활동에 애로가 커진다는 점 등이 작용하기 때문이다.Korean industrial relations academia has not conducted a full-scale study on the subject of industrial relations competencies. Yet the Swiss International Institute for Management Development has reported that Korea's industrial relations competitiveness ranks 56th among the 60 countries surveyed in 2013. This survey result was analyzed by the Ministry of Strategy and Finance, and the ministry's analysis was released by major newspapers and broadcasting companies. This study investigates how a number of Korean large enterprises acquired their leading positions in world markets, and how they have sustained their competitiveness in spite of Korea's extremely high level of labor-management conflicts. The large number of labor conflicts in Korea is rarely regarded as a key factor in these large enterprises’ rise, yet it is difficult to believe that the companies have enjoyed technological and quality advantages enough to overcome their severe industrial conflicts. Therefore, this research focuses on the mechanism in which Korean large enterprises have dealt with conflicts and have succeeded in attaining their competitiveness in the global market. To find this mechanism in Korean large companies, this research examines several theoreticalarguments about the relationship between labor management conflicts and industrial competitiveness. First, neo-corporatist theorists debated with neo-classical economists about the relationship between industrial relations system and national competitiveness. Neo-classical economists claim that European neo-corporatist countries lost competitiveness because their centralized industrial relations system caused labor market inflexibility. However, neo-corporatist theorists contend that many European countries were equipped with the same level of flexibility as the U.S. and the U.K. having decentralized industrial relations systems. According to neo-corporatist theorists, certain European countries were able to accommodate the high level of flexibility as their government, employers, and unions concluded social pacts. The social pacts enabled organizations to externalize industrial conflicts, which was in turn usually accompanied by an increase in labor market flexibility. Using the rationale of thisneo-corporatist theory, this paper hypothesizes that Korean large enterprises constructed a nationallevel mechanism to externalize the large number of labor conflicts. Secondly, production system theorists provide a reasonable argument on a mechanism in which Korean large enterprises were able to build their competitiveness in spite of a large number of industrial conflicts. This paper reviewed theories on post-Fordism production systems such as lean production systems, qualified diversity production systems, and flexible specialization. Despite their diverse explanations on sources of competitiveness, these theorists share the view that interenterprise relationships, especially those between assemblers and parts-suppliers, affect a company's competitiveness. When assembler and parts-suppliers are able to control their conflicts during their collaborative efforts on innovations, they improve their competitiveness in the market. Based on this common view, this paper examines how Korean large enterprise constructed an inter-enterprises relationship to externalize their large number of labor conflicts. Thirdly, theorists studying flexible enterprises and innovators posit an argument that companies attain their competitiveness in spite of industrial conflicts. These theorists suggest that companies raise their flexibility and competitiveness by dividing their workers into different groups such as core workers and peripheral workers, thereby passing on the cost for core workers' employment and wage stability onto peripheral workers. Based on this argument, this paper explores how Korean large enterprises handled internal labor markets to improve their competitiveness despite their high number of labor conflicts. This study uses qualitative analysis of two Korean companies to evaluate these hypotheses regarding mechanisms for externalizing the impact of labor-management conflicts. We examined Hyundai Motors and Samsung Electronics by reviewing company publications and research articles, and conducting unstructured depth interviews. Our research confirmed our hypotheses that Korean large enterprises succeeded in retaining their competitiveness by building a mechanism to externalize the impact of their large number of industrial conflicts and continue their innovation. Before the Asian Financial crisis in the late 1990s, Korean enterprises had tried to increase their share in the world market by maintaining price competitiveness. However, this effort failed, and Korean companies were forced to find alternatives to boost wage stability, labor flexibility, and workplace innovation in order to ensure quality competitiveness and price competitiveness at the same time. The new strategy intensified industrial conflicts further, and Korean large enterprises needed to externalize their industrial conflicts. The mechanism to externalize labor-management conflict was formed at the national, industrial, and company levels. At the national level, large enterprises utilized social concertation and social pacts to externalize conflicts during the process of increasing labor market flexibility. At the industrial level, Korean large companies passed their burden to subcontracting companies during the process of cost reduction and quality enhancement by taking advantage of their dominant positions over subcontractors. At the company level, Korean large companies entrenched employment stability and passed the cost of labor conflicts on to non-regular workers newly employed by subcontractors.
URI
http://scholar.dkyobobook.co.kr/searchDetail.laf?barcode=4010023675181http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11754/47994
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GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS[S](경영전문대학원) > BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION(경영학과) > Articles
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