Tributyltin; Alternative biocides; Diuron; Irgarol 1051; COASTAL WATERS; ENVIRONMENTAL-IMPACT; CALIFORNIA MARINAS; PAINT BIOCIDES; VENICE LAGOON; JINHAE BAY; CONTAMINATION; DIURON; TBT; JAPAN
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN, v. 95, No. 1, Page. 484-490
The occurrence and distribution of tributyltin (TBT) and alternative biocides were investigated in sediment from semi-enclosed bays, fishing ports, and large commercial harbors in Korea. Extremely high concentration of TBT (55,264 ng Sn/g) was detected near a large shipyard, even after a total ban on its use in Korea. Diuron was the biocide with the highest detection frequency and concentration levels, followed by Irgarol 1051. Sea-Nine 211 was detected at 3 of 32 stations surveyed. Dichlofluanid, zinc and copper pyrithiones levels were below the detection limits at all the stations surveyed. The relatively high levels of Diuron (9-62.3 ng/g) and Irgarol 1051 (1.5-11.5 ng/g) were detected in harbor and shipyard areas. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 levels including TBT in sediments from hot spots in Korea exceeded global sediment quality guidelines. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.