오슈; 변경; 오랑캐; 생활의 장; 기억; Oshu; Frontier; Barbarian; Field of life; Memory
일본역사연구, NO 42, Page. 57-82
This article analyzes the recognition of Kamakura Bakufu(鎌倉幕府) on Oshu(奥州) located in the northeast of the Japanese archipelago. In the early 1180’s, Oshu was firstly recognized as a refuge. This recognition was based on the notion that Oshu had been the frontier obtained through numerous conquests on barbarian since 8th century. In particular, the Oshu conquest by Minamotono Yoriyoshi(源頼義) and Yoshiie(義家) was constantly remembered in Kamakura Bakufu. Based on the memories of the conquests of Genji(源氏) ancestors, Oshu was being still perceived as a land of barbarians. Oshu battle of 1189 brought about a subtle change in this perception. Oshu battle firstly enhanced the notion of ˂Oshu=barbarians˃. Because Oshu battle, imitating the Oshu conquest by Minamoto Yoriyoshi was carried out in the context of conquest on barbarians. But Oshu as a land of barbarians was not all that Kamakura Bakufu faced in the development process and after the process of the battle. A splendid culture and governance system of Oshu Fujiwara clan(奥州藤原氏) caused a crack in recognition of Kamakura Bakufu on Oshu. This recognition were changed more radically via a generational change within the Bakufu and the severance of Genji Shogunate. The severance of Genji Shogunate triggered the oblivion of the Oshu conquest of Minamotono Yoriyoshi and Yoshiie. Furthermore, when a new generation emerged as a Bakufu’s protagonist by the 1220’s, the notion of ˂Oshu=barbarians˃ had to be underflowed inevitably. Now Oshu was emerging as a field of life. It was Hojo clan(北条氏) who led the conversion of Oshu to a field of life. Hojo clan’s estates accounted for nearly half of the Oshu. Hojo clan especially dominated the frontier of latitude 40 north. Goods of the northernmost tip of Honshu(本州) were circulated through the Japanese archipelago by Hojo clan and their subordinate. Through the intricate chains of people and goods, Oshu’s image as a field of life had become firm.