The TLR4-associated phospholipase D1 activation is crucial for Der f 2-induced IL-13 production

The TLR4-associated phospholipase D1 activation is crucial for Der f 2-induced IL-13 production
airway hyper-responsiveness; house dust mite; interleukin 13; phospholipase D; toll-like receptor 4
Issue Date
ALLERGY, v. 70, NO 12, Page. 1569-1579
Background: House dust mites (HDMs) are the most important source of indoor aeroallergens that contribute to the rising incidence of allergic diseases such as allergic asthma. The major HDM, Der f 2, induces inflammatory cytokine expression. Little is known about the signaling pathway involved. Objective: We wanted to define the Der f 2 signaling pathway from its receptor to the transcription factor responsible for IL-13 expression and production. Methods: Human bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with Der f 2. The release and gene expression of IL-13 were measured by means of ELISA and RTPCR, respectively. In the airway inflammation mouse model, airway responses were assessed using ELISA, histology, BAL fluid, and methacholine responsiveness. Results: Here, we show that Der f 2 binds to TLR4 and induces IL-13 expression and production. In the airway inflammation mouse model, Der f 2-induced IL-13 production significantly decreased with treatment of TAK-242, a novel TLR4 inhibitor. Activation of TLR4 by Der f 2 requires the recruitment and activation of Syk, which leads to phosphorylation of PLC gamma and membrane translocation of PKC alpha. p38 MAPK is then activated by PKC alpha and stimulates PLD1 activity by phosphorylating the Thr147 residue of PLD1. PLD1 activation enhanced binding of ROCK1 to ATF-2 and leads to increased expression of IL-13. Conclusion: Our data extend the knowledge for a variety of possible roles of PLD1 in allergic disorders including asthma pathogenesis and suggest possible candidacy of PLD1 as a molecular target for novel therapeutic approaches.
0105-4538; 1398-9995
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