Transcriptome sequencing of microglial cells stimulated with TLR3 and TLR4 ligands

Title
Transcriptome sequencing of microglial cells stimulated with TLR3 and TLR4 ligands
Authors
채영규
Keywords
Gene regulation; Innate immunity; Toll-like receptor; Microglia; RNA sequencing
Issue Date
2015-07
Publisher
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Citation
BMC GENOMICS, v. 16, Page. 1-21
Abstract
Background: Resident macrophages in the CNS microglia become activated and produce proinflammatory molecules upon encountering bacteria or viruses. TLRs are a phylogenetically conserved diverse family of sensors that drive innate immune responses following interactions with PAMPs. TLR3 and TLR4 recognize viral dsRNA Poly (I: C) and bacterial endotoxin LPS, respectively. Importantly, these receptors differ in their downstream adaptor molecules. Thus far, only a few studies have investigated the effects of TLR3 and TLR4 in macrophages. However, a genome-wide search for the effects of these TLRs has not been performed in microglia using RNA-seq. Gene expression patterns were determined for the BV-2 microglial cell line when stimulated with viral dsRNA Poly (I: C) or bacterial endotoxin LPS to identify novel transcribed genes, as well as investigate how differences in downstream signaling could influence gene expression in innate immunity. Results: Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation revealed that common and unique patterns of proinflammatory genes were significantly up-regulated in response to TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation. However, the IFN/viral response gene showed a stronger response to TLR3 stimulation than to TLR4 stimulation. Unexpectedly, TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation did not activate IFN-beta and IRF3 in BV-2 microglia. Most importantly, we observed that previously unidentified transcription factors (TFs) (i.e., IRF1, IRF7, and IRF9) and the epigenetic regulators KDM4A and DNMT3L were significantly up-regulated in both TLR3- and TLR4-stimulated microglia. We also identified 29 previously unidentified genes that are important in immune regulation. In addition, we confirmed the expressions of key inflammatory genes as well as pro-inflammatory mediators in the supernatants were significantly induced in TLR3- and TLR4-stimulated primary microglial cells. Moreover, transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and isoforms, as well as differential promoter usage, revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation upon infection with TLR3 and TLR4. Furthermore, TF motif analysis (-950 to +50 bp of the 5' upstream promoters) revealed that the DNA sequences for NF-kappa B, IRF1, and STAT1 were significantly enriched in TLR3- and TLR4-stimulated microglia. Conclusions: These unprecedented findings not only permit a comparison of TLR3-and TLR4-stimulated genes but also identify new genes that have not been previously implicated in innate immunity. Conclusions: These unprecedented findings not only permit a comparison of TLR3- and TLR4- stimulated genes but also identify new genes that have not been previously implicated in innate immunity.
URI
https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-015-1728-5http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11754/26198
ISSN
1471-2164
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-015-1728-5
Appears in Collections:
GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > BIONANOTECHNOLOGY(바이오나노학과) > Articles
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