Total ankle replacement has been performed for treatment of end stage arthritis of the ankle, hopefully being an alternative to ankle arthrodesis.However, due to its high failure rates, earlier versions of ankle replacements were not regarded as successful procedures. The latest design has shown increasingly positive results. Total joint replacement of the ankle itself is still regarded as a demanding procedure and much more challenging than that of the hip and knee in many aspects. Several studies, however, have pointed out that it is becoming the viable, accepted alternative for arthrodesis with advanced implants, appropriate patient selection, and proper training experience of procedures. Compared with arthrodesis, it shows equal or better outcomes in pain relief, range of motion, and patient’s satisfaction. We are attempting to review its biomechanical characteristics, implant design, indications, complications, clinical outcomes, and survival rate.