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북한의 위기대응과 체제 운영원리

Title
북한의 위기대응과 체제 운영원리
Other Titles
North Korea’s Crisis Management and System Operation Principle: Focusing on ‘Suryong System’
Author
모춘흥
Alternative Author(s)
Mo, Chun-Heung
Advisor(s)
은용수
Issue Date
2016-02
Publisher
한양대학교
Degree
Doctor
Abstract
이 논문은 사료의 분석을 통한 실증적 검증을 주요 방법으로 활용하는 역사적 접근법(historical approach)을 사용하여, 북한의 위기대응패턴이 수령 체제와 어떻게 연동되어 있는지를 분석한다. 이 논문이 북한의 위기대응패턴에 주목하고 있는 이유는 북한의 수령 체제의 태동과 확립, 그리고 재조정이 사실상 북한 위기대응의 산물이기 때문이다. 사실 이 논문에서 주목하고 있는 1950-60년대와 1990년대 북한이 직면했던 위기는 그 성격과 그것이 북한 체제에 미친 영향력 차원에서 결코 같지 않았다. 그러나 서로 다른 위기상황에 대응하는 북한의 위기대응방식에는 유사한 패턴이 존재한다. 불리하게 변화된 외부환경을 내부통제력의 강화로 돌파하려 했었던 것이 바로 그것이었다. 이렇게 북한이 불리하게 변화된 외부환경을 내부통제력의 강화로 돌파하려 했었던 것은 1956년 ‘8월 종파사건’, 1967년 갑산파 사건, 그리고 1990년대 들어 1996년 황장엽에 대한 공개적인 비판에서 보다 극명하게 나타난다. 이 사건들이 어떠한 이유 때문에 발생했는가를 놓고서는 다양한 설명이 제기되고 있지만, 북한이 국내 정치적 도전을 외부위협 요인과 연계해서 보고, 그 결과로서 내부통제력의 강화로 당면한 위기를 돌파해왔다는 점에서는 유사한 측면이 있다. 경험적 연구의 결과, 본 논문은 북한은 외부환경의 변화, 구체적으로 북한 최고 지도자는 북·중, 북·소 동맹관계로부터 촉발된 위협이 클 경우 국내 정치적 도전을 확대해서 인식하는 경향이 있었음을 알 수 있었다. 이러한 상황에서 북한 최고 지도자는 숙청이라는 극단적인 방식으로 내부 통제를 강화하고, 이를 통해 당면한 위기를 극복해왔다. 이러한 북한 위기대응의 패턴은 현재까지 그 성격이 유지되고 있는 것으로 볼 수 있다. 요컨대, 북한은 불리한 외부환경을 국내 정치적 긴장 조성에 활용하고 이를 통해 내부 통제를 강화하여, 이를 기반으로 체제와 정권에 대한 인민대중의 불안을 잠재우고 정권의 안정을 도모해오고 있는 것이다. 그리고 이러한 북한 위기대응의 패턴은 1950-60년대에 형성되어 1990년대를 넘어 지금까지 이어지고 있다. 또한, 북한 위기대응의 패턴은 북한에서 수령 체제가 태동되고 진화되는 과정과 직접적으로 맞물려 있다. 북한이 1950-60년대 위기상황을 극복하고 수령 체제를 만들어낸 것과 1990년대 위기상황이 북한의 수령 체제가 일정 부분 수정되게 만든 주된 동인이었다고 할 수 있다. 다만 북한의 수령 체제를 북한의 위기대응 패턴과 연결 지어서 분석할 때, 그 태동과 진화의 동학이 더욱 역동적으로 설명될 수 있다. 이러한 측면에서 1950-60년대와 1990년대 이후 북한 위기대응패턴의 지속성과 변화 양상을 면밀하게 추적해보면, 북한의 수령 체제가 태동되고 진화되는 동학을 역동적으로 그려낼 수 있는 것이다. 물론 북한의 수령 체제 형성의 사회 정치적 배경과 변화 양상은 이미 많은 학자들에 의해 연구되어 왔다. 또한 1990년대 북한의 위기대응과 관련된 분석 역시 많은 연구가 진행된 상태이다. 그러나 북한의 위기대응패턴과 수령 체제의 태동과 변화의 동학을 연결해서 분석한 연구는 매우 드물며, 1950-60년대 형성된 북한 위기대응의 패턴이 1990년대에 어떻게 적용되고 이것이 수령 체제 변화에 어떤 영향을 미쳤는지를 설명하고 있는 연구는 더욱 드물다.|This treatise analyzes how North Korean crisis coping pattern is inter-locked with the ‘Suryong System’, using historical approach which utilizes the positive verification as the key procedure through the analysis of the historical sources. The reason why this treatise gives an eye to North Korean crisis coping pattern is that the naissance, the establishment, and the readjustment of North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ are actually the products of North Korean crisis response. In fact, the crises, which North Korea faced from the 1950s to the 1960s and the 1990s that this treatise lays an eye on, were not the same in the dimension of their characteristics and their influences on North Korea's system. However, there exists a similar pattern in the North Korean crisis coping pattern which respond to the discrete crisis situations. That is, North Korea attempted to break through the adversely changed external environment by the reinforcement of internal control. These attempts to break through the detrimentally changed external environment by reinforcing the internal control were more clearly demonstrated through ‘August Factionalism Incident’ in 1956, ‘Purge of Gapsan Faction’ in 1967, and ‘Public Criticism against Hwang Jang-yup’ in 1996 of the 1990s. Various illustrations about the reasons of their occurrence have been raised, but there is a parallel aspect in that North Korea has considered the domestic political challenges in the connection with external intimidating causes and has broken through the urgent crises by the reinforcement of internal control. As a conclusion of the empirical research, this treatise reveals that there is a tendency that North Korea, to put it concretely, North Korean paramount leader, recognizes the domestic political challenges by magnifying itself about the changes of the external environment, such as the great peril triggered by the alliance relationship between North Korea and China, and North Korea and Soviet. In these situations, North Korea's paramount leader has overcome the immediate crises with fortifying the internal control through the extreme method of purge. These North Korean crisis coping pattern has maintained its characteristics until now. In brief, North Korea has exploited the unfavorable external environment for the creation of domestic political tension, thereby reinforced the internal control, quenched the public anxiety about the regime and government, and promoted the stability of the government. And these North Korean crisis respond pattern has been formed from the 1950s to the 1960s, has passed 1990s, and has continued up to the minute Also, North Korea's crisis coping pattern is directly inter-locked with the emergence and evolution process of North Korea's ‘Suryong System’. It was that North Korea overcame the crisis situation from the 1950s and to the 1960s, and created North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ and crisis situation of the 1990s that became the drive which changed North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ in some degree. Merely, the dynamics of its emergence and evolution can be energetically explicated when North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ is analyzed with the relation to its crisis response pattern. In this aspect, this treaties suggests that if we trace closely the continuity and change situation of North Korean crisis coping pattern during the 1950s-1960s and after the 1990s, we may depict energetically the dynamics of the emergence and evolution of North Korea's ‘Suryong System’. As we might guess, socio-political background North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ formation and its change situation have been examined by numerous scholars. Moreover, a great deal of analyses over North Korean crisis response in the 1990s have been executed as well. However, the analyses linking North Korean crisis coping pattern with its ‘Suryong System’ have been rare. And the studies elucidating how North Korean crisis response pattern formed from the 1950s to the 1960s is applied to that of the 1990s and how it has influenced on North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ are much rarer.
This treatise analyzes how North Korean crisis coping pattern is inter-locked with the ‘Suryong System’, using historical approach which utilizes the positive verification as the key procedure through the analysis of the historical sources. The reason why this treatise gives an eye to North Korean crisis coping pattern is that the naissance, the establishment, and the readjustment of North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ are actually the products of North Korean crisis response. In fact, the crises, which North Korea faced from the 1950s to the 1960s and the 1990s that this treatise lays an eye on, were not the same in the dimension of their characteristics and their influences on North Korea's system. However, there exists a similar pattern in the North Korean crisis coping pattern which respond to the discrete crisis situations. That is, North Korea attempted to break through the adversely changed external environment by the reinforcement of internal control. These attempts to break through the detrimentally changed external environment by reinforcing the internal control were more clearly demonstrated through ‘August Factionalism Incident’ in 1956, ‘Purge of Gapsan Faction’ in 1967, and ‘Public Criticism against Hwang Jang-yup’ in 1996 of the 1990s. Various illustrations about the reasons of their occurrence have been raised, but there is a parallel aspect in that North Korea has considered the domestic political challenges in the connection with external intimidating causes and has broken through the urgent crises by the reinforcement of internal control. As a conclusion of the empirical research, this treatise reveals that there is a tendency that North Korea, to put it concretely, North Korean paramount leader, recognizes the domestic political challenges by magnifying itself about the changes of the external environment, such as the great peril triggered by the alliance relationship between North Korea and China, and North Korea and Soviet. In these situations, North Korea's paramount leader has overcome the immediate crises with fortifying the internal control through the extreme method of purge. These North Korean crisis coping pattern has maintained its characteristics until now. In brief, North Korea has exploited the unfavorable external environment for the creation of domestic political tension, thereby reinforced the internal control, quenched the public anxiety about the regime and government, and promoted the stability of the government. And these North Korean crisis respond pattern has been formed from the 1950s to the 1960s, has passed 1990s, and has continued up to the minute Also, North Korea's crisis coping pattern is directly inter-locked with the emergence and evolution process of North Korea's ‘Suryong System’. It was that North Korea overcame the crisis situation from the 1950s and to the 1960s, and created North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ and crisis situation of the 1990s that became the drive which changed North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ in some degree. Merely, the dynamics of its emergence and evolution can be energetically explicated when North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ is analyzed with the relation to its crisis response pattern. In this aspect, this treaties suggests that if we trace closely the continuity and change situation of North Korean crisis coping pattern during the 1950s-1960s and after the 1990s, we may depict energetically the dynamics of the emergence and evolution of North Korea's ‘Suryong System’. As we might guess, socio-political background North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ formation and its change situation have been examined by numerous scholars. Moreover, a great deal of analyses over North Korean crisis response in the 1990s have been executed as well. However, the analyses linking North Korean crisis coping pattern with its ‘Suryong System’ have been rare. And the studies elucidating how North Korean crisis response pattern formed from the 1950s to the 1960s is applied to that of the 1990s and how it has influenced on North Korea's ‘Suryong System’ are much rarer.
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http://dcollection.hanyang.ac.kr/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000000092426http://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/126437
Appears in Collections:
GRADUATE SCHOOL[S](대학원) > POLITICAL SCIENCE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES(정치외교학과) > Theses (Ph.D.)
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