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Determination of Urinary Caffeine Metabolites as Biomarkers for Drug Metabolic Enzyme Activities

Title
Determination of Urinary Caffeine Metabolites as Biomarkers for Drug Metabolic Enzyme Activities
Author
유혜현
Keywords
caffeine; metabolites; phenotyping; CYP450; NAT; xanthine oxidase
Issue Date
2019-08
Publisher
MDPI
Citation
NUTRIENTS, v. 11, No. 8, Article no. 1947
Abstract
Caffeine is commonly taken via the daily dietary consumption of caffeine-containing foods. The absorbed caffeine is metabolized to yield various metabolites by drug-metabolizing enzymes, and measuring the levels of each caffeine metabolite can provide useful information for evaluating the phenotypes of those enzymes. In this study, the urinary concentrations of caffeine and its 13 metabolites were determined, and the phenotypes of drug metabolic enzymes were investigated based on the caffeine metabolite ratios. Human urine samples were pretreated using solid phase extraction, and caffeine and its metabolites were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Based on the urinary caffeine metabolite concentrations, the caffeine metabolite ratios were calculated for six human subjects at specified time points after caffeine intake. Variations in urinary metabolite levels among individuals and time points were reported. In addition, the resultant enzyme activities showed different patterns, depending on the metabolite ratio equations applied. However, some data presented a constant metabolite ratio range, irrespective of time points, even at pre-dose. This suggests the possibility of urinary caffeine metabolite analysis for routine clinical examination. These findings show that urinary caffeine and the metabolite analysis would be useful in evaluating metabolic phenotypes for personalized medicine.
URI
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/8/1947http://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/121933
ISSN
2072-6643
DOI
10.3390/nu11081947
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF PHARMACY[E](약학대학) > PHARMACY(약학과) > Articles
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