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메이지신궁과 ‘화혼양재(和魂洋才)’

Title
메이지신궁과 ‘화혼양재(和魂洋才)’
Other Titles
Meiji Shrine and Japanese Spirit Combined with Western Learning
Author
박규태
Keywords
메이지신궁; 내원; 외원; 화혼양재; 토착적 근대화; Meiji Shrine; Inner Park; Outer Park; Japanese spirit combined with Western Learning; indigenous modernization
Issue Date
2018-02
Publisher
원광대학교 종교문제연구소
Citation
한국종교, v. 43, Page. 205-230
Abstract
During the Meiji Age Japanese modernization was accomplished, and in that sense the Emperor Meiji is one of the symbols that represents modern Japan. Similarly , the Meiji Shrine is a symbolic space that represents modern Shinto religion that enshrined as ritual gods the Emperor Meiji and the Empress Shoken. As one of the outstanding features of modern Shinto religion, the founding Shrine that enshrined as ritual gods specific human beings can not be left out. The Meiji Shrine was a special case of establishing a shrine that enshrined the Emperor as a ritual god. This is because the Meiji Shrine, different from other established shrines, was composed of a dual structure of Inner Park and Outer Park. In 1920, the Meiji Shrine was built at Yoyogi in Sibuya in the present downtown of Tokyo. It is a complex space of religion and culture that was constructed with a visiting road to connect both the Inner Park, based on Shrine buildings, and the Outer Park, a Westernized park. The Inner Park of 700,000 square meters, called the Forest of Yoyogi, is an artificial forest made up of 365 kinds of 120,000 donated trees, and it is said to be ordinarily an ideal Shintoist forest. On the other hand, in the Outer Park, the Western-styled Meiji Memorial Picture Gallery and the burial site Emperor Meiji are located, and on it’s left various sports facilities were built including the National Stadium (stadium at the outer park of former Meiji Shrine) and the Ball Park of Divine Shrine, while During the Meiji Age Japanese modernization was accomplished, and in that sense the Emperor Meiji is one of the symbols that represents modern Japan. Similarly , the Meiji Shrine is a symbolic space that represents modern Shinto religion that enshrined as ritual gods the Emperor Meiji and the Empress Shoken. As one of the outstanding features of modern Shinto religion, the founding Shrine that enshrined as ritual gods specific human beings can not be left out. The Meiji Shrine was a special case of establishing a shrine that enshrined the Emperor as a ritual god. This is because the Meiji Shrine, different from other established shrines, was composed of a dual structure of Inner Park and Outer Park. In 1920, the Meiji Shrine was built at Yoyogi in Sibuya in the present downtown of Tokyo. It is a complex space of religion and culture that was constructed with a visiting road to connect both the Inner Park, based on Shrine buildings, and the Outer Park, a Westernized park. The Inner Park of 700,000 square meters, called the Forest of Yoyogi, is an artificial forest made up of 365 kinds of 120,000 donated trees, and it is said to be ordinarily an ideal Shintoist forest. On the other hand, in the Outer Park, the Western-styled Meiji Memorial Picture Gallery and the burial site Emperor Meiji are located, and on it’s left various sports facilities were built including the National Stadium (stadium at the outer park of former Meiji Shrine) and the Ball Park of Divine Shrine, while 일본 근대화를 성취한 메이지(明治)시대의 연호는 말할 것도 없이 메이지천황 에서 비롯된 것이며, 이런 의미에서 메이지천황은 근대 일본을 대표하는 상징 중 하나라고 말할 수 있다. 마찬가지로 메이지천황과 쇼켄(昭憲)황태후를 제신으로 모신 메이지신궁(明治神宮)은 근대신도를 대표하는 상징적 공간이라 할 만하다. 근대신도의 두드러진 특징으로 특정 인간을 제신으로 모신 창건신사를 빼놓을 수 없는데, 메이지신궁은 그 중 천황을 제신으로 모신 창건신사의 ‘특별한’ 사례라 할 수 있다. 메이지신궁은 여타의 창건신사와는 달리 내원(內苑)과 외원(外苑)이라 는 이원적 구조로 이루어져있기 때문이다. 1920년 현 도쿄 도심부인 시부야구 요 요기(代々木)에 건립된 메이지신궁은 신사건축을 기조로 한 내원과 서양식 공원 인 외원 및 양자를 연결하는 참배로(表参道)로 이루어진 종교=문화복합공간이다. 이 중 일명 ‘요요기의 숲(代々木の杜)’이라 불리는 70만 평방미터의 내원은 12만 그루(365종)의 헌목으로 이루어진 인공림으로 통상 신도 진수숲(鎮守の森)의 이 상형으로 말해지기도 한다. 한편 외원의 경우는 서양풍의 <성덕기념회화관>(聖德 記念繪畵館)과 메이지천황의 장례식 터가 위치하고, 그 왼쪽에는 <국립경기장>(구 메이지신궁 외원경기장)과 신궁구장(神宮球場)을 비롯한 각종 스포츠 시설들이 들 어서 있으며, 오른쪽에는 메이지천황이 대일본제국헌법을 발포했던 <메이지기념 관>(구 헌법기념관)이 배치되어 있다. 본고의 목적은 ‘토착적=일본적 근대화’라는 관점에서 일본 근대성의 한 상징인 메이지신궁의 이원적 공간구조와 구성원리에 내포된 함의 및 의의를 특히 ‘화혼양재’(和魂洋才)라는 모토와 결부시켜 규명하는 데에 있다. 이때 ‘토착적=화혼, 근대화=양재’라는 기본도식과 함께 양자의 상호 중충성 혹은 교차성에 주목할 것이다.
URI
https://www.earticle.net/Article/A326992http://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/121347
ISSN
1738-3617
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF LANGUAGES & CULTURES[E](국제문화대학) > JAPANESE STUDIES(일본학과) > Articles
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