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Occurrence and emission of phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea

Title
Occurrence and emission of phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea
Author
문효방
Keywords
Plasticizer; DEHP; DEHT; TOM; DINCH; WWTP
Issue Date
2019-11
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Citation
SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, v. 692, Page. 354-360
Abstract
Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that cause adverse health effects in wildlife and humans. Due to domestic and global regulations of phthalates in commercial products, non-phthalate plasticizers (NPPs) have been introduced into industrial markets. Few studies have been conducted on the occurrence of phthalates and NPPs in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, sludge samples were collected from 40 WWTPs in Korea to investigate the occurrence, compositional profiles, and emission flux of phthalates and NPPs. Total concentrations of phthalates and NPPs in sludge ranged from 4.7 to 1400 (mean: 110) mu g/g dry weight and from 0.17 to 780 (mean: 28.0) mu g/g dry weight, respectively. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a predominant compound, suggesting widespread consumption in Korea. Di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate (DEHT) was dominant in industrial sludge samples, whereas di-isononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) and trioctyl trimellitate (TOW) were dominant in domestic sludge. This implies different consumption patterns of phthalate alternatives by industry and domestic activities. Concentrations of NPPs were significantly correlated with those of high-molecular-weight (HMW) phthalates, indicating that HMW phthalates were preferentially replaced by NPPs. The emission fluxes of phthalates via domestic WWTP activities were higher than those measured for industrial WWTPs, while the emission fluxes of NPPs via industrial WWTPs were higher than those found for domestic and industrial WWTPs. This indicates that phthalate emissions are associated with household activities, while NPP emissions are associated with industrial activities. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
URI
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969719334151http://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/121226
ISSN
0048-9697; 1879-1026
DOI
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.301
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND CONVERGENCE TECHNOLOGY[E](과학기술융합대학) > MARINE SCIENCE AND CONVERGENCE ENGINEERING(해양융합공학과) > Articles
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