RESEARCH & POLITICS, v. 5, no. 4, Article no. UNSP 2053168018813446
In recent years, research on the incumbency effect using a regression discontinuity design has flourished. Although the regression discontinuity design has allowed scholars to examine the incumbency effect in various electoral settings, previous studies have not measured what has traditionally been defined as the incumbency (dis)advantage. In this paper, I bring together methods from previous research, provide a consistent exposition thereof, and highlight some of the challenges of estimation and interpretation by applying these methods to election data from 10 different electoral settings.