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Fabrication of in vitro 3D mineralized tissue by fusion of composite spheroids incorporating biomineral-coated nanofibers and human adipose-derived stem cells

Fabrication of in vitro 3D mineralized tissue by fusion of composite spheroids incorporating biomineral-coated nanofibers and human adipose-derived stem cells
Composite spheroid; Mineralized bone tissue construct; Mineralized fibers; Fragmented fibers; Micro-tissue; Bone tissue engineering
Issue Date
ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, v. 74, page. 464-477
Development of a bone-like 3D microenvironment with stem cells has always been intriguing in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we fabricated composite spheroids by combining functionalized fibers and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), which were fused to form a 3D mineralized tissue construct. We prepared fragmented poly (t-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers approximately 100 tm long by partial aminolysis of electrospun fibrous mesh. PLLA fibers were then biomineralized with various concentrations of NaHCO3 (0.005, 0.01, and 0.04 M) to form mineralized fragmented fibers (mFF1, mFF2, and mFF3, respectively). SEM analysis showed that the minerals in mFF2 and mFF3 completely covered the fiber surface, and surface chemistry analysis confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite peaks. Additionally, mFFs formed composite spheroids with hADSCs, demonstrating that the cells were strongly attached to mFFs and homogeneously distributed throughout the spheroid. In vitro culture of spheroids in the media without osteogenic supplements showed significantly enhanced expression of osteogenic genes including Runx2 (20.83 +/- 2.83 and 22.36 +/- 2.18 fold increase), OPN (14.24 +/- 1.71 and 15.076 +/- 1.38 fold increase), and OCN (4.36 +/- 0.41 and 5.63 +/- 0.51 fold increase) in mFF2 and mFF3, respectively, compared to the no mineral fiber group. In addition, mineral contents were significantly increased at day 7. Blocking the biomineral-mediated signaling by PSB 603 significantly down regulated the expression of these genes in mFF3 at day 7. Finally, we fused composite spheroids to form a mineralized 3D tissue construct, which maintained the viability of cells and showed pervasively distributed minerals within the structure. Our composite spheroids could be used as an alternative platform for the development of in vitro bone models, in vivo cell carriers, and as building blocks for bioprinting 3D bone tissue.Statement of SignificanceThis manuscript described our recent work for the preparation of biomimeral-coated fibers that can be assembled with mesenchymal stem cells and provide bone-like environment for directed control over osteogenic differentiation. Biomineral coating onto synthetic, biodegradable single fibers was successfully carried out using multiple steps, combination of template protein coating inspired from mussel adhesion and charge-charge interactions between template proteins and mineral ions. The biomineral-coated single micro-scale fibers (1-2.5 mu m in diameter) were then assembled with human adipose tissue derived stem cells (hADSCs). The assembled structure exhibited spheroidal architecture with few hundred micrometers. hADSCs within the spheroids were differentiated into osteogenic lineage in vitro and mineralized in the growth media. These spheroids were fused to form in vitro 3D mineralized tissue with larger size. (C) 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1742-7061; 1878-7568
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