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한국 변경사 연구 시론 - 지대, 선, 영토

Title
한국 변경사 연구 시론 - 지대, 선, 영토
Other Titles
A Preliminary Investigation of the History of Korean Borders - Zones, Lines and Territories
Author
윤해동
Keywords
변경사; 변경; 국경; 지대; 선; 영토; 네르친스크조약; 북경조약; border history; border; boundary; zone; line; territory; the Treaty of Nerchinsk; the Treaty of Beijing
Issue Date
2017-12
Publisher
영남대학교 민족문화연구소
Citation
민족문화논총, no. 67, page. 393-419
Abstract
현대 한국인들은 15세기 초반 세종대에 압록강과 두만강을 경계로 국경이 확정되었으며, 이를 통해 한국의 영토가 완성되었다는 인식을 역사교육을 통해 되풀이하여 교육받는다. 그러나 백두산을 중심으로 압록강과 두만강이 자연적인 경계 역할을 수행했다고 보는 것은 역사적 사실과 부합하지 않는 인식이다. 그럼에도 이런 역사인식을 유지하고 그에 심각한 의미를 부여하는 것은 영토의 덫에 빠질 위험성을 높이게 된다.이 글에서는 경계 개념이 ‘지대로부터 선으로’ 이행해왔다는 기존 변경연구의 성과를 수용하여, 15세기 이후 한국의 북쪽 변경이 변화해온 양상을 살펴보았다. 한국의 북쪽 변경에 변화가 생기는 두 가지 큰 계기를, 17세기 초반의 네르친스크조약과 19세기 중반의 북경조약으로 설정하였다. 두 조약은 모두 청과 러시아 사이에 맺어진 것이었으나, 그것이 조선 과 청 그리고 러시아 사이의 경계에 몰고 온 변화는 심대한 것이었다.19세기 후반 국경이 확정되면서 사람들의 이동에는 제약이 가해지고, 주민들의 정체성을 강화하는 작업이 추진되었다. 이 시기에 한국에도 영토개념이 정착하게 되었고, 이를 바탕으로 대한제국은 근대국가로서의 국민통합을 적극적으로 수행하게 되었던 것이다. 1905년 이후 간도문제는 전국민적 관심사로 부상하였고, 국경선을 경계로 확정된 영토가 민족주의의 토대로 작용할 수 있음을 증명하고 있었다. 간도영유권 문제는 청일간의 협상의제로 전환하였고, 이를 계기로 근대적인 ‘민족’의식이 대두하면서 ‘강역계승의식’ 나아가 ‘영토적 민족주의’는 더욱 확산되어갔던 것이다.at Korea's national border was fixed along the Yalu River and Tumen River as boundaries in the early part of the 15th century under the reign of King Sejong and that this marked the territory of "Korea" as we today know it. However, this understanding that the Yalu and Tumen Rivers, with Mt. Baekdu in between, served as natural boundaries is inconsistent with historical facts. So maintaining this view of history and placing serious meaning to it only increases the risk of falling into the territorial trap.This paper investigated how the northern border of Korea has evolved since the 15th century, incorporating the insights of the border studies that demonstrate the transfiguration of the concepts of boundaries from "zones" to lines." The Treaty of Nerchinsk of the early 17th century and the Treaty of Beijing of the mid-19th century were identified as two important occasions that triggered changes in the northern border of Korea. Both Treaties were concluded between Qing and Russia, but the changes they brought to Joseon's border with these two countries were indeed immense.In the latter half of the 19th century, with the demarcation of the national border, restrictions were placed on the movement of people while efforts to reinforce their identity were carried out. The Great Korean Empire now aggressively promoted policies of national integration as a modern state. The post-1905 years saw rising interest in the Jiandao issue on a national level, showing that territory as defined by national borders can serve as a factor driving nationalism. The issue of Jiandao territorial rights became a matter for negotiations between Qing and Japan. This fueled modern-type "national consciousness," which led to increasing "awareness of the need for territorial succession" and ultimately, further expansion of "territorial nationalism." at Korea's national border was fixed along the Yalu River and Tumen River as boundaries in the early part of the 15th century under the reign of King Sejong and that this marked the territory of "Korea" as we today know it. However, this understanding that the Yalu and Tumen Rivers, with Mt. Baekdu in between, served as natural boundaries is inconsistent with historical facts. So maintaining this view of history and placing serious meaning to it only increases the risk of falling into the territorial trap.This paper investigated how the northern border of Korea has evolved since the 15th century, incorporating the insights of the border studies that demonstrate the transfiguration of the concepts of boundaries from "zones" to lines." The Treaty of Nerchinsk of the early 17th century and the Treaty of Beijing of the mid-19th century were identified as two important occasions that triggered changes in the northern border of Korea. Both Treaties were concluded between Qing and Russia, but the changes they brought to Joseon's border with these two countries were indeed immense.In the latter half of the 19th century, with the demarcation of the national border, restrictions were placed on the movement of people while efforts to reinforce their identity were carried out. The Great Korean Empire now aggressively promoted policies of national integration as a modern state. The post-1905 years saw rising interest in the Jiandao issue on a national level, showing that territory as defined by national borders can serve as a factor driving nationalism. The issue of Jiandao territorial rights became a matter for negotiations between Qing and Japan. This fueled modern-type "national consciousness," which led to increasing "awareness of the need for territorial succession" and ultimately, further expansion of "territorial nationalism."
URI
http://www.dbpia.co.kr/journal/articleDetail?nodeId=NODE07365937&language=ko_KRhttp://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/116481
ISSN
1229-8697
DOI
10.15186/ikc.2017.12.67.393
Appears in Collections:
RESEARCH INSTITUTE[S](부설연구소) > ASIA PACIFIC RESEARCH CENTER(아태지역연구센터) > Articles
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