리스크통제; 리스크평가; 리스크인지; 제로리스크; 물리적 공간 조성; Risk Control; Risk Assessment; Risk Cognition; Zero Risk; Architecture
한양법학, v. 28, no. 3, page. 209-228
사람들은 절대 안전, 안심을 구하는 욕망 때문에 다른 사람 혹은 자신이 잘 알지 못하는 물건이나 물질을 배제하는 경향이 강하다. 즉 자신과 조금이라도 다른 것을 리스크제로가 아니라는 이유로 커뮤니티에서 배제하거나 가까이 하지 않는다. 예컨대 범죄전력자나 정신장애자이거나 과거에 그런 경험이 있었던 사람들에 대해서 이들을 당연히 위험성이 있는 사람이라고 판단하고 접근하지 않도록 통제하려는 경향이 강하다. 문제가 되는 것은 경제적으로 우리나라보다 빈곤한 나라에서 온 외국인에 대하여 위험할 수 있다고 생각하거나 적어도 리스크제로가 아닐 수 있다고 생각하여 이들을 피하거나 배제하는 것이다. 문화 다양성을 지향할 수밖에 없는 사회에서 이러한 외국인에 대한 잘못된 태도와 인식은 매우 위험하다. 특히 외국인에 대하여 어떤 리스크가 있다고 오인하여 물리적 공간 조성이라는 권력을 활용하게 된다면 특별히 위험한 사회를 만들 수 있다는 점에 유의해야 한다. In the traditional constitutional nation, the role of the police was limited to the prevention of passive danger because the police aimed to prevent the danger and to eliminate the obstacles in order to maintain public security and order. However, due to the development of science and technology in various fields, modern society is not only hard to foresee the occurrence of risk but also has a wide range of damage. For this reason, modern society is called a risk society. Therefore, it is anticipated that the police action will take an active role in preventive activities from the pre-risk stage in the pre-consideration of the risk, away from the passive activity of traditional risk prevention. Modern police are being asked to change their subject as “safety(concrete safety against the danger of objective reality)” to “security(security system against future anxiety)” Therefore, police policy is changing from “danger prevention” to “risk control”.The purpose of this study is to find out the police control measures against the modern risk society. First, we reviewed the contents and limitations of risk assessment and risk perception, which are traditional risk control methods, the reason for the divergence between risk assessment and risk perception and the error of zero risk and the limitations of risk assessment and risk perception formation(eg, the human ability to perform risk assessment, the perspective of risk assessment, the cost of risk perception, risk assessment ability of police (not professional administration) etc). Next, I examined the usefulness and limitations of the physical space composition(so called “Architecture”), a new risk control method. Architecture is characterized by the fact that it is irrelevant to intellectual ability as a new risk control measure, not a traditional control means such as law, non-legal norm, or market. The architecture has the following limitations. The fact that Architecture does not require a certain order makes it possible to further enhance dangerous behavior by lowering people's self-awareness ability, the possibility of non-compliance with the democratic process, the possibility of civilian abuse of power, etc.Finally, because of the desire to secure safety, people tend to distance or exclude other people or objects or substances they do not know because they are not zero risk, these false attitudes and errors of perception are very dangerous and warned that foreigners who come from economically poorer countries can become a particularly dangerous society by Architecture as a risk control method.