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Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus: toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate

Title
Combined effects of sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole on a freshwater microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus: toxicity, biodegradation, and metabolic fate
Author
전병훈
Keywords
Pharmaceutical contaminants sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole; biodegradation; metabolic products; microalgae; toxicity modeling
Issue Date
2019-05
Publisher
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Citation
JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, v. 370, Page. 138-146
Abstract
This study investigated the environmental effects of two common emerging contaminants, sulfamethazine (SMZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), and their mixture using a green microalga, Scenedesmus obliquus. The calculated EC50 values of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture (11:1 wt/wt) after 96 h were 1.23, 0.12, and 0.89 mg L-1, respectively. The toxicity of the mixture could be better predicted using a concentration addition model than an independent action model. The risk quotients of SMZ, SMX, and their mixture were > 1 during the experiment, indicating their high potential risks on aquatic microorganisms. Despite their toxicity, S. obliquus exhibited 17.3% and 29.3% removal of 0.1 mg L-1 and 0.2 mg L-1 after 11 days of cultivation. The changes of SMZ and SMX removal were observed when combined, which showed a significantly improved removal of SMZ (up to 3.4 folds) with addition of SMX (0.2 mg L-1). The metabolic pathways of SMZ and SMX were proposed according to mass spectroscopic analysis, which showed six metabolites of SMX and seven intermediates of SMZ, formed as a result of ring cleavage, hydroxylation, methylation, nitrosation, and deamination.
URI
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030438941830579X?via%3Dihubhttp://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/111799
ISSN
0304-3894; 1873-3336
DOI
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.049
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING[S](공과대학) > EARTH RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING(자원환경공학과) > Articles
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