SMEs 관점에서의 BIM 기반 공사 관리 시스템 개발 연구
- SMEs 관점에서의 BIM 기반 공사 관리 시스템 개발 연구
- Other Titles
- Development of BIM-based Construction Management System from the Perspective of SMEs
- Alternative Author(s)
- Yoo, Moo-Young
- 최 창 식
- Issue Date
- 2019. 8
- 국내 건설업을 영위하는 대기업 및 중견기업을 제외한 나머지 기업을 중소기업 즉, SMEs(small and medium-sized enterprises)라고 한다. 우리나라 경제가 저성장 시대에 진입하면서 건설 산업의 부진으로 국내 내수시장에만 국한된 국내 SMEs는 매우 어려운 실정이다. 경기침체에 따른 수주감소와 경쟁업체의 증가는 저가수주로 이어져 국내 SMEs의 경영 상태는 매우 악화되고 있으나, 많은 연구자들은 근본적인 해결책을 찾지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 또한 국내 건설 산업에서 대다수를 차지하고 있는 SMEs의 연구 자료는 대기업, 대규모 프로젝트의 연구 자료에 비해 매우 저조한 실정이다. SMEs에 대한 연구 자료가 부족한 이유 중에 하나는 대기업에 비해 자본이 매우 부족하고 투입 인력 구조가 취약하기 때문에 형식을 갖춘 기록의 절차보다는 형식이 갖춰지지 않은 유동적이고 비공식적인 방식으로 구두를 통한 의사결정 방식으로 운영이 되고 있기 때문이다.
특히 건설 프로젝트는 정해진 기간 동안 발주자의 요구사항에 맞추어 다양한 공정별 건설업체들 간의 협업을 통해 다양한 공종들의 정보를 상호 공유하며 프로젝트가 진행이 되어야 하는데 자본과 인력이 제한적이며 수익구조가 약한 SMEs 입장에서는 건설 프로젝트를 문제없이 수행하는 것도 매우 어려운 실정이다. 또한 SMEs의 큰 특징으로 대표자 중심으로 기업이 운영이 되면서 단일 프로젝트가 아닌 다수의 건설프로젝트를 관리하고 있는 특징이 있다. 제한적인 내부 인력으로 여러 건설 프로젝트를 관리하고 발주자의 니즈(needs)를 만족시키며 성공적인 건설 프로젝트로 수행하는 것은 SMEs 특성상 많은 한계점이 있다. 그러나 SMEs의 장점 중에 하나는 대표자 중심으로 프로젝트가 수행되기 때문에 복잡한 정보에 따른 신속한 대응과 빠른 판단으로 인해 대기업에 비해 의사결정 과정이 신속하다.
이러한 SMEs의 공사 관리 운영 능력을 개선하는데 있어 BIM(Building Information Modeling)이 하나의 대안이 되고 있다. 형식을 기반으로 정량적이고 정확한 정보를 통해 공사를 수행할 수 있는 BIM은 제한적인 인력으로 다수의 프로젝트를 관리해야 하는 SMEs 입장에서 건설 프로젝트를 관리하는 어려움을 극복할 수 있는 대안이 될 수 있다. 또한 최근 ICT 기술로 실시간 건설 정보 관리가 가능하게 되면서 본 연구에서 개발될 시스템 사용자 환경을 웹(WEB)/앱(APP) 방식을 통한 현장, 공장, 도급사 및 발주자가 함께 현장의 정보와 상태를 공유하여 SMEs 관점에서 리스크를 최소화하고 효율적인 공사 관리가 가능한 운영 시스템을 본 연구에서 제안하였다.
본 연구에서는 SMEs 관점에서 건설 프로젝트 공사 관리의 어려움을 파악하고, 이를 지원하기 위한 BIM 기반의 공사 관리 시스템을 개발하는 것을 목적으로 한다. 본 논문의 전체 구성은 다음과 같다. 1장에서는 연구의 배경 및 목적, 연구의 범위 및 방법에 대해 간략하게 서술하였다. 2장에서는 SMEs 특성과 SMEs 관점에서 건설 프로젝트를 수행하는 데 있어서 갖고 있는 한계와 문제점을 분석하였다. 또한 BIM 기반 공사 관리 시스템 개발을 위한 이론적인 근거를 확보하기 위해 기존 문헌을 고찰하였다. 3장에서는 사전 현황 조사을 통해 SMEs 관점의 업무를 분석하였다. 철골공사와 실내 인테리어공사로 나누어 기존 업무의 흐름 분석과 공사 관리에 따른 한계를 분석하여 시스템 방향을 도출하였다. 4장은 본 연구를 통해 개발되고, 검증될 시스템에 대해 상세하게 설명하였다. 5장은 본 연구를 통해 개발된 시스템을 실제 사례 프로젝트에 적용하여 개발된 시스템의 주요 기능들을 구현하였다. 6장은 단일 사례 분석을 통한 연구의 한계를 극복하기 위해 사례 분석 내용을 토대로 개발될 시스템의 잠재적인 사용자 그룹을 설정하여 최종 사용자 만족도 조사를 수행하였다. 사용자 그룹은 1) BIM 기반 철골공사를 수행하는 SMEs 관계자, 2) BIM 기반 실내 인테리어공사를 수행하는 SMEs 관계자로 구분하였으며, 5장에서 구현한 기능을 통해 5가지 범주의 12가지 평가지표를 통해 시스템에 대한 예비 타당성을 검증하였으며, 이를 기반으로 하여 시스템의 개선 방향을 정리하였다. 7장은 본 연구의 결론으로 전체 연구를 간략하게 요약하고, 연구의 한계점 및 향후 필요한 연구 주제에 대해서 제안하였다.
주요 연구 내용에 대해서 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫 번째, 분석의 신뢰성을 향상시키기 위해 SMEs 관점에서 BIM 기반 공사 관리 시스템 프레임워크 및 주요 모듈을 개념적으로 제안하였다. 두 번째, 시스템의 주요 기능을 도출하기 위해 사례 프로젝트의 철골공사, 실내 인테리어공사에 대한 세부 업무 분석을 수행하였다. 이를 통해 공사 종류, 단계별로 활용 가능한 BIM 적용 분야를 도출하였다. 세 번째, SMEs가 수행한 사례 프로젝트를 통해 개발 중인 시스템의 기능을 구현하였다. SMEs 이해 관계자 및 시스템을 개발하는 연구진들을 대상으로 개발 중인 시스템의 효과를 분석하였다. BIM 기반 철골공사 관리 모듈, BIM 기반 실내 인테리어공사 관리 모듈을 사례 프로젝트를 통해 구현한 결과 SMEs 관점에서 업무에 활용할 경우 효과가 있을 것으로 기대되었다. 네 번째, 정성적인 분석 결과를 보완하기 위해 시스템 기능에 대한 최종 사용자의 만족도를 조사하였다. 개발 중인 주요 시스템의 모듈을 근거로 하여 잠재적인 시스템 사용자를 대상으로 한 최종 사용자 만족도 분석을 통해 개발 중인 시스템의 성능을 개선하기 위한 방향성을 수립할 수 있었다.
본 연구의 결과는 SMEs 관점에서 건설 프로젝트를 관리함에 있어 형식을 갖춘 정량적이고 정확한 정보를 통해 운영할 수 있는 공사 관리 시스템 개발을 제안한 것 이다. 본 연구에서는 이 시스템을 통해서 BIM기반으로 제한적인 인력으로 다수의 현장을 관리해야 하는 리스크를 최소화하고 사용자 환경에 있어 웹/앱 기반으로 공사 관계자 및 이해자가 다자간 현장의 정보와 상태를 함께 공유함으로 SMEs가 보다 효율적인 건설 프로젝트가 관리가 가능하다는 것이 검토되었다. 또한 향후 연구에서는 완성된 시스템을 다양한 프로젝트의 관리에 적용함으로써 SMEs가 갖고 있는 프로젝트 관리의 한계점을 극복하기 위한 추가적인 사례 연구 및 시스템 성능 개선 연구가 필요할 것으로 사료된다.
The Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can be defined by the rest of the companies excluding large and personal business. Since the momentum of economic growth in Korea is getting blunted, and the construction industry experiences the hard times, SMEs business are faced an even more difficult situation. During the economic downturn, construction orders are decreased, and business competition are increased. Eventually it has leaned to low-cost orders. It caused a very negative situation for the management of SMEs. Many researchers have yet to find a fundamental solution. Although SMEs share the most in the domestic construction industry, research data is very limited comparing to large companies and large projects. There is a reason why SMEs' research data is scarce, because the most of SMEs are operated with limited capital and scarce manpower. When SMEs make decisions, it tends to an inconsistent and informal way without a record or written document.
In particular, the construction project should share the information of the various types of process with the cooperation between the partners to meet the requirements of the client in a limited period. However, SMEs has not only limited capital, but manpower and the rate of return are slow. It is very difficult to carry out a construction project without problems. SMEs are also operated by CEO who manages multiple construction projects at the same time. It should manage several construction projects with limited internal staffs and to satisfy the needs from the clients. Therefore, the nature of SMEs has many limitations to accomplish a successful construction project. However, one of the greatest advantages of SMEs is that the project is carried out mainly by the representatives, thus the quick response and rapid decision making is possibile when many large companies usually take longer time.
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an alternative method to improve management and management capabilities for SMEs'. Because BIM is able to perform construction through quantitative and accurate information based on the format, SMEs who need to manage multiple projects with limited manpower can be an option to overcome the difficulties of managing construction projects. Although BIM allows managing the information about the buildings implemented by SMEs, there is a possible limitation in managing the manpower successfully. At this level, this study will trace the workers by using IoT based on sensor technology. Recently marketed ICT (eg IoT) provides real-time construction management systems that are fully integrated into construction projects. According to this new tool, the future construction site will be recognized as a smart workspace that owns adaptive sensor network and a decision-making system for monitors and the worker's activities. It is supported in real time at all levels. In particular, application of real-time locating system (RTLS) technology in the construction sector will be increased. RTLS is an application that identifies the current location of people, materials, equipment, and facilitates data tracking and management. This is a combined system of hardware and software. It will automatically determine the movement of objects in real time within a designated area. Data collected by RTLS can be applied not only for managing resources in real time, but also for further analysis. These systems include BIM-based information which come from Web / App through ICT technology. In addition, it is possible to develop a system that allows the client / site / manufacturing factory / contractor to share and manage the site together in real time.
In this study, it will develop a BIM system to identify the difficulties of construction project and construction management from the viewpoint of SMEs. It will examine the system for potential users. Finally, the system will be used to find out the expected effect and improve the performance of the developed system.
It is essential for the construction project to collaborate with the various construction companies during the specified period. Projects often require information from other types of work linked to each other, and they are characterized by different processes in a single work. The construction of information and its efficient use in construction projects are very important data that have a considerable influence on project performance. The vast majority of SMEs in this critical role lack a clear formatted record procedure compared to large corporations. As a result, the management of small businesses is done in a flexible and informal way. For example, one of the main methods of communicating information is through informal meetings between individuals. Therefore, it has limitations to carry out construction management based on the identification of human resources input to construction projects and quantitative information. In addition, SMEs may have difficulty of raising funds and maintaining adequate cash flow. It may limit continued capital investment in employee training and technology development. Thus, SMEs participating in construction projects have common limitations in improving their business systems. However, owners or managers of SMEs play a very important role in the decision making process. For this reason, if the effect of business process reengineering (BPR) is lucid, it may be more likely to change more effectively than large companies.
By using 3D BIM model, it enables integrated design and can be applied to various fields (eg, design verification, quantity calculation, pre-production, etc.) during the construction period. In particular, collision detection and design review using BIM at the pre-construction stage can reduce the loss that can occur in the construction steps. For example, design errors can be solved in the design step in advance. This can improve design quality by reducing errors, changes, and rework. In the factory manufacturing and manufacturing stage, it is possible to simplify the procurement process of the building module through BIM-based prefabrication, the design, the installer, and the manufacturing process. In terms of production productivity, architectural module builders have the opportunity to leverage information from the BIM unit to support the manufacturing process. This information is parametric that was not provided in 2D-based production work. In the construction step, the 4D simulation can be implemented by linking the BIM Model. BIM-based 4D simulation combines information from process, equipment, and space to identify various uncertainties that can occur during the process and provides information. It can be reviewed in advance. Therefore, the effect of BIM on the stages of construction projects is clear.
In previous research, however, large-scale projects were reviewed to identify the effects of BIM on construction projects. There are many researches related to return on investment (ROI) that large construction companies have achieved through the implementation of BIM-based construction projects. There are many researches that analyze the effect of applying BIM from the perspective of SMEs. However, there is not much research to build a BIM-based construction management system from the viewpoint of SMEs. It is because SMEs do not have large sales and profits, and they give up the application of BIM, which has a high initial cost.
The purpose of this study is to develop a system to manage construction based on BIM from the viewpoint of SMEs. Therefore, in order to derive necessary functions from the viewpoint of SMEs, it will develop a system equipped with BIM-based construction management.
In this study, chapter 1 briefly describes the background, purpose, the scope, and the method of the study. In chapter 2, it will review the characteristics, limitations and problems of SMEs in construction projects and to find out existing literature to secure the theoretical basis for the development of BIM-based construction management system. In chapter 3, it will analyze the SMEs perspective through the preliminary survey. It is divided into steel frame construction and interior construction, and the system direction is derived by analyzing the flow of the existing work and analyzing the limit of construction management. Chapter 4 describes the system to be developed and verified in detail. In chapter 5, it will apply the system which is developed in this study for the actual case and implemented the main functions of the developed system. In chapter 6, based on the case analysis, it will set up a potential user group for the system and conducted an end-user satisfaction survey. User groups are classified into 1) SMEs which perform BIM-based steel frame works, 2) SMEs which perform BIM-based indoor interiors, and 12 functions of 5 categories, and the improvement direction of the system will be summarized. Chapter 6 briefly summarizes the expected effects of applying this study to the system. The final chapter 7 is the conclusion of this study. It will summarize the whole study and suggest the limitations of the research that will be needed to research in the future.
Some case studies on SMEs 'case management system, this study analyzed the work flow of SMEs' perspective by dividing them into management of steel frame construction and management of interior decoration. Through the analysis of the work, it analyzes the limitations of management of SMEs steel frame construction and interior construction. Existing SMEs have three stages: 1) pre-construction, 2) factory construction and processing, and 3) site construction. The problem of the existing work is that the construction management according to the basic construction drawing and the steel installation drawing does not go through the design error step. If design errors are identified at the construction stage, there are problems such as construction cost increase and delay in construction period for new or new order of materials when the design is changed. In order to solve the problems of existing steel frame construction, all the information functions of BIM model should be integrated and used from the pre-construction stage to the site installation. The case study is used to derive the system direction according to the limit of the steel frame construction. Design errors, information transmission errors, information sharing errors, and interference errors can be identified to find suitable system functions. There are many ways of designing and constructing existing interior decorating work methods, and there is a high risk of manpower consumption. In order to overcome this, the BIM model can be used to work efficiently through the integrated BIM model at the design step, the estimation step, the construction step, and the aftercare step. Through the case project, the existing method discovered the design error overlapped with the internal structure when the construction was carried out based on the basic architectural drawing. The external and internal interference errors were confirmed. Therefore, accurate BIM model information is required to reduce the risk of pre-order. BIM model information is needed to manage integrated information in the field so that it can cope with design changes rapidly during the process. In order to avoid information transmission error and information sharing error, systematic system which can review and confirm information in real time is required.
Based on the theoretical review and the preliminary survey, the necessity of the BIM system was derived from the viewpoint of SMEs. It will develop a system that can be utilized by SMEs based on the BIM-based construction management system framework. The characteristics of the system to be developed are as follows.
First, it should be able to input and output various information (eg, BIM model, wireless sensor data, laser scan or image scan data). Even if the construction of a single process (eg steel frame construction) is managed, the planned model, the built model, and the information about the construction labor can be different. Information on buildings can be obtained through BIM model and laser scan data. However, information on other construction resources should be utilized by other means such as safety helmets, safety vests, and safety systems equipped with wireless sensors. Construction information and manpower management should be integrated by integrating these construction information.
Second, from the viewpoint of SMEs, it should be a system equipped only with functions (eg, 3D visualization, cost planning, QTO, clash detection) necessary for BIM-based construction management. It is necessary to supervise the construction progress through the information constructed at the construction site and to establish the accurate planning, input and management of the workforce. It should not be a bloated system with all the features, but it should have good usability in various operating environments (eg Off-site, Web & App based on-site management).
Third, it should be a system with improved accessibility for everyone through information that can be provided on Web & App basis (eg html, pdf, image, dwfx, etc.). It should be able to access the information necessary for the construction management even if the technology of smart device operation is used rather than the BIM SW which is difficult to operate and utilize.
This study is applied to the case based on the BIM framework. It performs system verification on potential users based on the application. Based on the theoretical review and prospective examination, the main functions of the BIM are 1) BIM - based steel construction management, 2) BIM - based interior and interior construction management. In the user environment of BIM-based construction management system, web / application method is used in off-site besides on-site. This system can transmit the BIM-based information of the construction, various construction information of the site, and the real-time site status to many corporations. In this way, it analyzes the performance of system through case analysis and user satisfaction survey of BIM-based management of steel frame construction and interior construction management by applying the system that can transmit the information of construction, and get suggestions for improvement direction.
Due to the characteristics of the system, the material that constitutes the BIM model for the main part of the steel construction work is divided into the main material and the auxiliary material. Each material is automatically sorted into numeric and character values and stored as BIM data. For example, there are bolts, and details of detailed dimensions such as welding and cutting. With this unit modeling method, the BIM model can be quickly and accurately modified to change the design information according to the design change. In addition, BIM-based construction in the interior support the BIM model for the main construction site is divided into interior and other layers. In addition, the BIM model of the interior decoration work can be implemented by calculating the automatic quantity at the same time. In the interior design, many processes must be performed in parallel. Therefore, as the time and cost are added to the calculation of the quantity, the area and volume of the ceiling / wall / bottom finishing materials are automatically calculated through the BIM model. In addition, it will implement the user environment in such that the corporation can share information, verify and verify information by using Web / App method so that the user can easily access the BIM - based quantitative information in the system user environment.
The BIM model was applied to the case project based on the steel frame construction and the interior decoration work which SMEs were actually put into. In order to derive the possibility of the system, system function is implemented through analysis of construction work and various BIM information. The BIM model for supporting the steel frame construction includes detailed information such as the number of bolts, welding length, cutting portion, grouting, and refractory covering area of various steel joints in addition to the main units and auxiliary materials of the steel frame. Based on these data, specifications, quantity, grade, area, weight, and unit weight for steel units can be automatically calculated. It analyzes the steel construction work to derive the main functions of the system, and provided the BIM function by dividing it into pre-construction step, factory production step, and construction step. In addition, BIM-based steel frame support functions are identified at the design step, and the site conditions and installation conditions are identified in advance through detailed information at the production stage. At the construction step, detailed information of BIM is implemented to find out the construction error through laser scanning and to link construction quality with quality control. The structure of BIM model for interior decoration support distinguishes layers of various interior finishing materials such as ceiling / wall / floor interior and exterior flooring material in existing steel BIM model information. The BIM model is also constructed for the finishing material. It can be calculated automatically by area (m2) and volume (m3). It analyzes the interior design work to derive the main functions of the system and divided BIM functions into the pre-construction step and the construction step. The feature of the BIM function in the interior design is the final stage, which includes checklists, materials and product specifications, and commissions. In addition, the BIM model was applied to examine interferences between outside and inside through 4D simulation, and interferences between processes to be applied to the ceiling, wall, and floor according to the cross section of the building and the floor. It can implement the AR tool for virtual space information for the client's expectation, contributing to customer satisfaction.
In this study, it is difficult to gain credibility of the results of the research by just analyzing the case of the small project and interviewing the research group and the project group participating in the project. Therefore, the end user satisfaction survey, which is the evaluation method for the information system presented in the theoretical reviews are performed. The evaluation of the BIM under development is largely divided into five factors for the BIM - based steel construction management module and the BIM - based interior decoration construction management module. Using the 12 indicators, the end user's satisfaction with the information system was measured using the 5 point scale. The subjects of this survey were 30 employees of SMEs (including design and construction), and 30 employees of SMEs. Finally, the questionnaire was collected from 52 respondents.
The results of the user satisfaction survey on the BIM - based steel frame construction management module show that the satisfaction with the information content and accuracy category are relatively high. Since the information needed for the task is extracted from the BIM model, the reliability of the information content and accuracy is secured. On the other hand, the survey results on the easy use and the timeliness category were relatively low. These results suggest that pre-service training of the system is necessary from the perspective of SMEs.
When the BIM-based steel structure management module is applied to the construction project, it is judged that the content and accuracy of the information of On site and Off site are very important. In the steel structure management, the construction error must be minimized through the production stage which minimizes the accurate spot size and the error range. In the production review stage, it is important to secure the accuracy by thoroughly reviewing and precise construction accordingly. Thus, the BIM-based steel structure management module leads to quality control, cost and process control, which can overcome the risks of SMEs.
In order to construct various indoor works, BIM-based interior and interior construction management can be minimized in addition to the amount of original materials, by ordering many materials in construction quantities. In addition, the 4D simulation of the finishing materials enables the user to review the pre-installation situation in various angles. In order to manage the project smoothly according to the situation, it is useful to construct enough BIM database before construction and to secure construction management after securing enough inspection and review steps in advance.
The features of this system framework are as follows: 1) a system capable of inputting and out-putting various information, 2) a system equipped only with functions necessary for BIM-based construction management from the viewpoint of SMEs, and 3) an improved accessibility system that can be used by anyone with information that can be provided. Systems that will be developed from the viewpoint of SMEs should not only have accessibility based on web / app in off-site and on-site environment, but also have good information utilization. The construction manager should be able to access detailed information on the building, and be able to provide on-site information to the multilateral construction officials. The client needs an environment that can utilize various kinds of reliable information for decision support. The contractor, site manager, head office manager, manufacturing and delivery company that make up the construction staff of the construction project receive information in real time on the quantitative and accurate information of the site. Thus, it is possible to minimize various risks occurring in construction sites and to manage efficient projects.
This study is conducted to develop a BIM - based construction management system from the perspective of SMEs. The main results of the study are summarized as follows. First, in order to improve the reliability of analysis, BIM-based construction management system framework and major modules are conceptually presented from SMEs perspective.
Secondly, in order to derive the main functions of the system, detailed work analysis of steel frame construction and interior decoration work of case project was carried out. Through this, it derives the application areas of BIM that can be used by construction type and stage.
Third, it implements the functions of the system under development through case projects performed by SMEs. It analyzes the effectiveness of the system under development for SMEs stakeholders and system development researchers. The BIM-based steel frame construction management module and the BIM-based interior construction management module were implemented through the case project and it was expected to be effective when applied to the work from the viewpoint of SMEs.
Fourth, it conducted an end-user satisfaction survey (EUCS) on system functions to supplement the qualitative analysis results. Based on the modules of the main system under development, the end user satisfaction survey was divided into two categories according to the type of work. Through this analysis, it tries to overcome limitations of the single case analysis of this study, and it was able to establish the direction to improve the performance of the system under development through analyzing the end user satisfaction of potential system users.
Therefore, this study was possible to derive necessary tasks of BIM by analyzing problems of existing construction management from SMEs' perspective. In a complex and diverse information-intensive construction project, it obtained quantitative and accurate information in form, even in small projects, not limited to large projects. It was analyzed that mutual information exchange and communication between the construction company and the construction company are very important. In addition, SMEs lacking capital and professional manpower have difficulty in capital investment in building BIM-based information utilization and web / app-based user environment. However, it can confirm that it is a system favorable to SMEs in terms of minimizing the risk of construction and overcoming the profit of the enterprise.
Future research will need to review the additional problems and drawbacks of small-scale projects and SMEs. In addition, additional case studies and system performance improvement are necessary to overcome the limitations of SMEs' project management by applying the completed system to various project construction management. Once the BIM-based construction management system and the efficiency of building in the user environment are able to analyze and apply to the system, additional research that utilize construction management from the view of SMEs should be conducted.
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