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商代前期都城考

Title
商代前期都城考
Author
안신원
Keywords
鄭州商城; 偃師商城; 毫; 都城; Shang City Site in Zhengzhou; Shang City Site in Yanshi; Shang Capital of Bo; A Capiytal City
Issue Date
2006-12
Publisher
한국고대학회
Citation
선사와 고대, v. 25, Page. 595~622
Abstract
본 논문은 상대 전기 도성에 관한 고고학적 자료와 문헌기록을 검토하여 상대 전기의 도성유적의 성격과 관계에 대해 살펴본 글이다. 상대 전기의 도성유적인 정주상성과 언사상성은 규모, 구조, 출토유물, 문헌 등의 검토를 통해 모두 상대 전기에 축성된 상문화의 대표적 유적이지만, 정주상성은 엄청난 규모의 성벽, 성 내외부에 존재한 궁전, 민간건물, 청동기 제작소, 골기 제작소, 배수시설, 무덤, 제사갱, 거대한 청동기 등으로 보아 이미 계급의 분화, 재화의 독점, 제작 및 공급체계, 제의의 발달 등 국가권력이 정점의 단계에 도달해 있었을 때 나타날 수 있는 고고학적 특징들을 모두 갖추고 있으므로 湯王의 도읍인 ?으로 비정할 수 있으며, 언사상성은 규모나 내부 건축물, 출토된 유물 등으로 볼 때 정주상성과는 달리 국가체계를 상징하는 시스템이 모두 갖추어지지 않았다고 판단되며, 이리두유적과의 관계를 살펴볼 때 일종의 군사적 성격을 지닌 치소로 보았다. 또한 두 유적과 이리두문화와의 비교를 통해 이리두유적은 하의 유적이며, 따라서 정주 이리강문화의 원류는 이리두문화가 아니라 하북성 일대의 선상문화라는 점을 강조하였다. The existence of the once legendary Shang Dynasty(商) was introduced to the world with the excavation of Yinxu(殷墟) in the 1920s. According to written documentations, Shang Dynasty has moved its capital city five times, and Yinxu was its last known capital. Many historians have debated over where the remaining four capitals were, specifically over their locations during the Early and Middle Shang Dynasty. Such debates are in essence due to the lack of archaeological evidence that can support written documentations. The discovery of the Shang City Site in Zhengzhou(鄭州商城) in Henan Province(河南省) in the 1950s marked an epoch of research regarding the capital cities of Shang Dynasty. Artifacts excavated in the Shang City Site in Zhengzhou(鄭州商城) was initially predicted to be from Ao(?), the capital of the Middle Shang Dynasty, as they were clearly from an earlier period than Yinxu. However, when compared with capital city artifacts from the Xia Dynasty(夏), Erlitou(二里頭), claims of the Shang City Site in Zhengzhou(鄭州商城) as the capital city Bo(?) of the Early Shang Dynasty. As studies of the Shang City Site in Yanshi(偃師商城) emerged in the 1980s, debates over the capital city of the Early Shang Dynasty intensified once again. As the two sites were from similar time periods and their ruins showed similar cultural aspects, the Shang City Site in Yanshi(偃師商城) was predicted as the capital city Bo(?) of the Early Shang Dynasty, and the Shang City Site in Zhengzhou(鄭州商城) as another capital city built around the same period. There are written documentations which support the two sites as capital cities built around similar times with analogous archaeological evidence. However, these documents" authenticity poses a problem as they were written subsequently. Thus, characteristics of the capital city of the Early Shang Dynasty can only be deduced from archaeological research. The Shang City Site in Zhengzhou(鄭州商城) and the Shang City Site in Yanshi(偃師商城) both show characteristics of a capital city. However, the size of the Shang City Site in Yanshi(偃師商城) in only 1/3 of that of the Shang City Site in Zhengzhou(鄭州商城), and has a shorter periodof use. They also show differences in the sizes of buildings and methods of constructions. In the Shang City Site in Zhengzhou(鄭州商城) a palace, living quarters, bronze workshops, bone implements workshops, sewage systems, tombs, religious sacrificial pits, and large bronze ceremonial vessels were found, showing archaeological characteristics of an established nation state as well as a class system, production and distribution of bronze, development of religious rituals, and castle walls. Unlike the Shang City Site in Yanshi( 偃師商城), the Shang City Site in Zhengzhou(鄭州商城) possesses all the necessary characteristics of a capital city. Thus, it can be concluded as the capital city Bo(?) of the Early Shang Dynasty, and the Shang City Site in Yanshi(偃師商城) as a city built for military purposes of observing the fallen Xia Dynasty(夏).
URI
http://scholar.dkyobobook.co.kr/searchDetail.laf?barcode=4010020312089http://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/108906
ISSN
1229-0432
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF LANGUAGES & CULTURES[E](국제문화대학) > CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY(문화인류학과) > Articles
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