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Occurrence and Source Effect of Novel Brominated Flame Retardants (NBFRs) in Soils from Five Asian Countries and Their Relationship with PBDEs

Title
Occurrence and Source Effect of Novel Brominated Flame Retardants (NBFRs) in Soils from Five Asian Countries and Their Relationship with PBDEs
Author
문효방
Keywords
POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS; GREAT-LAKES ATMOSPHERE; PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS; IN-HOUSE DUST; POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS; SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION; SOUTH CHINA; NORTH CHINA; DECHLORANE PLUS
Issue Date
2017-09
Publisher
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Citation
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, v. 51, No. 19, Page. 11126-11135
Abstract
This paper presents the first comprehensive survey of 19 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in soil samples collected among five Asian countries. High variability in concentrations of all NBFRs was found in soils with the geometric mean (GM) values ranging from 0.50 ng/g dry weight (dw) in Vietnam to 540 ng/g dw in the vicinity of a BFR manufacturer in China. In urban, rural, and background locations, the GM concentrations of Sigma(19)NBFRs decreased in the order of Japan ˃ South Korea ˃ China ˃ India ˃ Vietnam. Correlations among different NBFR compounds were positive and statistically significant (p ˂ 0.05), suggesting that they originate from similar sources. Evidence for simultaneous application between polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and NBFRs were also noted. Principal component analysis of NBFR concentrations revealed specific pollution sources for different NBFRs coming from urban, BFR-related industrial, and e-waste sites. For the first time, this study demonstrates a "point source fractionation effect" for NBFRs and PBDEs. The concentrations of all NBFRs and PBDEs were negatively and significantly correlated with the distance from BFR-related industrial and e-waste regions. Positive and significant correlation between population density and NBFR concentrations in soils was identified. Our study revealed that the primary sources effects were stronger than the secondary sources effects in controlling the levels and distribution of NBFRs and PBDEs in soils in these five Asian countries.
URI
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.7b03207http://repository.hanyang.ac.kr/handle/20.500.11754/103598
ISSN
1520-5851; 0013-936X
DOI
10.1021/acs.est.7b03207
Appears in Collections:
COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND CONVERGENCE TECHNOLOGY[E](과학기술융합대학) > MARINE SCIENCE AND CONVERGENCE ENGINEERING(해양융합공학과) > Articles
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