Zhinu; 織女; Feminist literary criticism theory; 女性主義文學批評; Litterature; 陽性書寫; L`ecriture feminine; 陰性書寫; Chinese ancient Poems; 中國古典詩詞
중국학보, v. 73, Page. 61-81
In general impression, Zhinü has become a model for Chinese women with its loyal virtuous image. However in the Chinese ancient poetry, Zhinü image as a typical Chinese “female image” is not entirely consistent but showing a different face. The “feminine image” usually can make people think of feminist literary criticism, because “woman image” research can be said to be one of the earliest forms of feminist literary criticism. This paper analyse Zhinü image of Chinese ancient poems in view of the feminist literary criticism theory mainly with the concept of littérature and l,écriture féminine. Zhinü image in the littérature is established in the androcentric visual mainly of three aspects as loyal and virtuous women image, Taoist fairy image suggestive of male desire and a woman of easy virtue image ignoring the feudal ethics. The first image : Zhinü in ancient Chinese poetry has sustained attention from the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty poet. This is because Zhinü's virtuous and loyal image meet the Chinese men in the thousands of years of feudal society. The second is Taoist fairy image of Zhinü which suggest and become the male sexual desire carrier. It shows the needs and dreams from man, so such Zhinü image becomes the tool to satisfy the male desire which is suppressed by traditional Confucianism in real life. It actually is a reflection of the desire to live higher than reality of life or is a form of compensation for the repressed worldly desires and unfruitless effort to achieve the unrealistic immortals. The third is the image of loose moral woman who violate the feudal etiquette. Literati strongly advocated women's behavior should abide by the “three from the four virtues”. But Zhinü disobey her parents and betrayed the feudal etiquette to marry Qianniu and pursue an aggressive love which is contrary to the feudal ethics and Zhinü becomes moral adulterous woman. Zhinü in the l,écriture féminine has two aspects of images. One is shown with real emotion, true feelings and independent self. Another is with the rebellion against the feudal ethical code. First image is the expression of true feelings of women. Here Zhinü image dare to express demands of woman herself, such as human affection and desire, love and hate. This kind of Zhinü image shaping is not because powerful groups regard vulnerable groups pitifully. It stands in the position of women herself on women's true feelings with respect and recognition. So it involves a complete change in attitude. Second image is followed by the rebellion against the feudal ethical code, here Zhinü image dare to resist the patriarchal for true love and freedom of marriage, reflecting female consciousness. Anyway, in the male dominated feudal society Zhinü image is moulded from the male point of view. But in the course of the study we found that although the feudal era has its limitations, but in this time we can still find the existence of littérature. Some poets stand in the position of women speaking for Zhinü. Zhinü image dare to rebel against feudal ethics to express their true feelings, showing the beginning of female consciousness, which at that time is valuable and has certain progressive significance of.